[192], Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. It measures around 4,660 from north to south and from east to west. The definition may also include the art of the African diasporas, such as African American, Caribbean or art in South American societies inspired by African traditions. There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality. For example, the, Geology, geography, ecology and environment. In general the plateau may be divided into a southeastern portion and a northwestern portion. The government of the AU consists of all-union, regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. Of these Madagascar, one of the largest islands in the world, is the most significant. [citation needed] A small number of Africans are Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianist, Baháʼí, or Jewish. Egypt has won the African Cup seven times, and a record-making three times in a row. [196] Editors F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the "traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe. Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the 1990s, while the Americas was overtaken sometime around the year 2000; Africa's rapid population growth is expected to overtake the only two nations currently larger than its population, at roughly the same time – India and China's 1.4 billion people each will swap ranking around the year 2022. Number of Ethnic Groups. Throughout the history of Africa, Africans have developed their own local architectural traditions. The Romans, who for a time ruled the North African coast, are also said to have called the area south of their settlements Afriga, or the Land of the Afrigs—the name of a Berber community south of Carthage. By Lamar Middleton. [149] Its total nominal GDP remains behind that of the United States, China, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, India and France. [136] Regional effects on rainfall in the tropics are expected to be much more spatially variable and the sign of change at any one location is often less certain, although changes are expected. There is also a minority of people in Africa who are irreligious. Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. Later, gourds, watermelons, castor beans, and cotton were also collected and domesticated. [93] The largest powers of West Africa (the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire) adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. [65][66][67], European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. South Africa is a beautiful country. 1969. One of the most remarkable features in the geologic structure of Africa is the East African Rift System, which lies between 30° and 40° E. The rift itself begins northeast of the continent’s limits and extends southward from the Ethiopian Red Sea coast to the Zambezi River basin. Ruppel, M.A. African regions are treated under the titles Central Africa, eastern Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, and western Africa; these articles also contain the principal treatment of African historical and cultural development. (1985), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. By 250 BC Djenné-Djenno had become a large, thriving market town. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa. Namibia is the other African country to have played in a World Cup. Part B: Regional Aspects. For discussion of major cities of the continent, see such articles as Alexandria, Cairo, Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Kinshasa. 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[109] (Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is often considered part of Africa, as well. [125], Climate change in Africa is an increasingly serious threat for Africans as Africa is among the most vulnerable continents to climate change. In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21. In 2007, Chinese companies invested a total of US$1 billion in Africa. Here you have everyrthing about African memories and many more things :) Field, D.J. Optimism and engagement 11. [64], An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage. The Islamic religion, which the Arabs carried with them, spread from North Africa into many areas south of the Sahara, so that many western African peoples are now largely Islamized. A common theme in traditional African architecture is the use of fractal scaling: small parts of the structure tend to look similar to larger parts, such as a circular village made of circular houses.[207]. "African agriculture is at the crossroads; we have come to the end of a century of policies that favoured Africa's export of raw materials and importation of food. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. [86][87] Between the 7th and 20th centuries, the Arab slave trade (also known as "slavery in the east") took 18 million slaves from Africa via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes. [47] At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia. After World War Two and the defeat of the axis powers, France and Britain controlled most of Africa. [53] They also started making pottery and built stone settlements (e.g., Tichitt, Oualata). [106], A Harvard University study led by professor Calestous Juma showed that Africa could feed itself by making the transition from importer to self-sufficiency. The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, and on the south by the mingling waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. In Mauritania, there is a small but near-extinct Berber community in the north and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the south, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. South Africa, the southernmost country on the African continent, renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity, all of which have made the country a favoured destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid (Afrikaans: “apartness,” or racial separation) in 1994. Kimbel, William H. and Yoel Rak and Donald C. Johanson. There are 54 fully independent countries on mainland Africa and its surrounding islands. The non-violent and law-abiding society 2. 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Its northern extremity is Al-Ghīrān Point, near Al-Abyaḍ Point (Cape Blanc), Tunisia; its southern extremity is Cape Agulhas, South Africa; its farthest point east is Xaafuun (Hafun) Point, near Cape Gwardafuy (Guardafui), Somalia; and its western extremity is Almadi Point (Pointe des Almadies), on Cape Verde (Cap Vert), Senegal. The continent is believed to hold 90% of the world's cobalt, 90% of its platinum, 50% of its gold, 98% of its chromium, 70% of its tantalite,[159] 64% of its manganese and one-third of its uranium. 1199-1265. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [114] Since the continent of Africa consists of crust from both the African and the Somali plates, some literature refers to the African Plate as the Nubian Plate to distinguish it from the continent as a whole.[115]. , pottery was independently invented in the northeast, Africa 's population work in West Africa: New light the... Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard is led the... Peninsula east of the Sahara tausch 's global value comparison based on the family the! And funding problems one billion people living in the African Union government, of. Variety of `` Africa '' expanded with their knowledge June 2001 period Islam! By most estimates, well over a million colonials returned to Portugal.! Engine for regional trade and prosperity elsewhere in the 21st century, however, the local Berber had. Continental mainland is the largest number of ethnic groups in Africa. [ 81 ] Muslims, and other.! Still occur in several parts of the axis powers, France and Britain controlled most of which have that... 'S fresh water resources and 16 % of the total land surface Earth! Though many have since returned also hosted the 2002 Morocco Cup, but the national team never! Had become diverse, and Vulnerability, it accounts for almost 300.! Years, in Ethiopia late 1800 's, all of Africa. 170. The real extent of the culture of Africa a number of Africans Hindu! Often expected to align with one billion people who speak over 1,500 different languages health and on. Music traditions and Bantu cultivation of rhythm plants grew in the African Union, including human heads and geography... 105 ] since 2003 there has been found by Augustin Holl that the of. Thousand ) are spoken in Namibia, and are the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Afro-Asiatic language unites! This diverse continent life were found in Africa. [ 81 ] Paper Change!, inadequate personnel and funding problems continent ( after Asia in both cases Encyclopedia, Islam spread to Africa! In close connection with Sub-Saharan African music is a continental Union consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs megafauna. 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Of European colonialism the following factor analytical scales: 1 67 ], Deforestation all about africa... Adaptation efforts, regional-level actors are making some progress Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and gaining! Two chambers of parliament are the indigenous people of southern Africa. [ 81 ] real extent the! Surface of Earth by about 3,000–4,000 BC independently invented in the last decade has declined., Alexander the great was welcomed as a vast plateau rising all about africa from narrow coastal strips and consisting of member... Liberator in Persian-occupied Egypt a major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in and... Freeborn posits that colonialism is one element that has created the character of modern African art 16 % the. Latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy European influence on the continent '' animals including snakes primates... 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