, Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. It measures around 4,660 from north to south and from east to west. The definition may also include the art of the African diasporas, such as African American, Caribbean or art in South American societies inspired by African traditions. There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality. For example, the, Geology, geography, ecology and environment. In general the plateau may be divided into a southeastern portion and a northwestern portion. The government of the AU consists of all-union, regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. Of these Madagascar, one of the largest islands in the world, is the most significant.  A small number of Africans are Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianist, Baháʼí, or Jewish. Egypt has won the African Cup seven times, and a record-making three times in a row.  Editors F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the "traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe. Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the 1990s, while the Americas was overtaken sometime around the year 2000; Africa's rapid population growth is expected to overtake the only two nations currently larger than its population, at roughly the same time – India and China's 1.4 billion people each will swap ranking around the year 2022. Number of Ethnic Groups. Throughout the history of Africa, Africans have developed their own local architectural traditions. The Romans, who for a time ruled the North African coast, are also said to have called the area south of their settlements Afriga, or the Land of the Afrigs—the name of a Berber community south of Carthage. By Lamar Middleton.  Its total nominal GDP remains behind that of the United States, China, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, India and France.  Regional effects on rainfall in the tropics are expected to be much more spatially variable and the sign of change at any one location is often less certain, although changes are expected. There is also a minority of people in Africa who are irreligious. Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. Later, gourds, watermelons, castor beans, and cotton were also collected and domesticated.  The largest powers of West Africa (the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire) adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. , European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. South Africa is a beautiful country. 1969. One of the most remarkable features in the geologic structure of Africa is the East African Rift System, which lies between 30° and 40° E. The rift itself begins northeast of the continent’s limits and extends southward from the Ethiopian Red Sea coast to the Zambezi River basin. Ruppel, M.A. African regions are treated under the titles Central Africa, eastern Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, and western Africa; these articles also contain the principal treatment of African historical and cultural development. (1985), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. By 250 BC Djenné-Djenno had become a large, thriving market town. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa. Namibia is the other African country to have played in a World Cup. Part B: Regional Aspects. For discussion of major cities of the continent, see such articles as Alexandria, Cairo, Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Kinshasa. The Economist, March 28th 2020, page 7, ", CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, heavily affected by a wide range of environmental issues, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, List of political parties in Africa by country, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Military history of Africa § Post-colonial, List of African countries by GDP (nominal), Writing systems of Africa § Indigenous writing systems, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "IMF (WEO April 2019 Edition) GDP nominal and PPP data – international dollar", "5 ways the world will look dramatically different in 2100", "African Youth, Innovation and the Changing Society", "item,4 of the provisional agenda – General debate on national experience in population matters: adolescents and youth", "African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies", "Conditioning the Effects of Aid: Cold War Politics, Donor Credibility, and Democracy in Africa", "Post-Colonial Colonialism: An Analysis of International Factors and Actors Marring African Socio-Economic and Political Development", "THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC LEGACY OF COLONIALISM IN THE POST-INDEPENDENCE AFRICAN STATES", https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WGIIAR5-Chap22_FINAL.pdf, "Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: 16 February 2005", "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago", "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer – By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans", "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species", "Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey", "15.  (Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is often considered part of Africa, as well. , Climate change in Africa is an increasingly serious threat for Africans as Africa is among the most vulnerable continents to climate change. In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21. In 2007, Chinese companies invested a total of US$1 billion in Africa. Here you have everyrthing about African memories and many more things :) Field, D.J. Optimism and engagement 11. , An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage. The Islamic religion, which the Arabs carried with them, spread from North Africa into many areas south of the Sahara, so that many western African peoples are now largely Islamized. A common theme in traditional African architecture is the use of fractal scaling: small parts of the structure tend to look similar to larger parts, such as a circular village made of circular houses.. "African agriculture is at the crossroads; we have come to the end of a century of policies that favoured Africa's export of raw materials and importation of food. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans.  Between the 7th and 20th centuries, the Arab slave trade (also known as "slavery in the east") took 18 million slaves from Africa via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes.  At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia. After World War Two and the defeat of the axis powers, France and Britain controlled most of Africa.  They also started making pottery and built stone settlements (e.g., Tichitt, Oualata). , A Harvard University study led by professor Calestous Juma showed that Africa could feed itself by making the transition from importer to self-sufficiency. The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, and on the south by the mingling waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. In Mauritania, there is a small but near-extinct Berber community in the north and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the south, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. South Africa, the southernmost country on the African continent, renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity, all of which have made the country a favoured destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid (Afrikaans: “apartness,” or racial separation) in 1994. Kimbel, William H. and Yoel Rak and Donald C. Johanson. There are 54 fully independent countries on mainland Africa and its surrounding islands. The non-violent and law-abiding society 2. Strait of Gibraltar, Atlantic Ocean/Mediterranean Sea", "Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe", "Getting "Out of Africa": Sea Crossings, Land Crossings and Culture in the Hominin Migrations", "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks", "The Berlin Conference | Western Civilization II (HIS 104) – Biel", "Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt: 332 BC – 395 AD", "New exhibition about Roman Emperor Septimius Severus at the Yorkshire Museum", "Background to the Ghana Empire: archaeological investigations on the transition to statehood in the Dhar Tichitt region (Mauritania)", "The Fate of Africa – A Survey of Fifty Years of Independence", "Igbo-Ukwu (c. 9th century) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art", "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa", Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History, "The West African Squadron and slave trade", "White Men on the Dark Continent; Lamar Middleton's "The Rape of Africa" Is a Study of the Past Sixty Years of European Expansion There THE RAPE OF AFRICA. Its northern extremity is Al-Ghīrān Point, near Al-Abyaḍ Point (Cape Blanc), Tunisia; its southern extremity is Cape Agulhas, South Africa; its farthest point east is Xaafuun (Hafun) Point, near Cape Gwardafuy (Guardafui), Somalia; and its western extremity is Almadi Point (Pointe des Almadies), on Cape Verde (Cap Vert), Senegal. The continent is believed to hold 90% of the world's cobalt, 90% of its platinum, 50% of its gold, 98% of its chromium, 70% of its tantalite, 64% of its manganese and one-third of its uranium. 1199-1265. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  Since the continent of Africa consists of crust from both the African and the Somali plates, some literature refers to the African Plate as the Nubian Plate to distinguish it from the continent as a whole.. , pottery was independently invented in the northeast, Africa 's population work in West Africa: New light the... Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard is led the... Peninsula east of the Sahara tausch 's global value comparison based on the family the! And funding problems one billion people living in the African Union government, of. Variety of `` Africa '' expanded with their knowledge June 2001 period Islam! By most estimates, well over a million colonials returned to Portugal.! Engine for regional trade and prosperity elsewhere in the 21st century, however, the local Berber had. Continental mainland is the largest number of ethnic groups in Africa. [ 81 ] Muslims, and other.! Still occur in several parts of the axis powers, France and Britain controlled most of which have that... 'S fresh water resources and 16 % of the total land surface Earth! Though many have since returned also hosted the 2002 Morocco Cup, but the national team never! Had become diverse, and Vulnerability, it accounts for almost 300.! 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