Hydrobiologia 146:57-62. Hensley, J.N. 1988. (2015). It has the lifespan upto 9 years. McCann. [24], The black-and-white-striped tilapia pla nin (Thai: ปลานิล), meaning "Nile fish", has darker flesh and is commonly either salted and grilled or deep-fried, and it can also be steamed with lime (pla nin nueng manao).[25]. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Oreochromis niloticus are found here. Habitat. This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. [8], The forms referred to as Oreochromis (or Tilapia) nyabikere and kabagole seem to belong to this species, too. [13] Like other fish, Nile tilapia travel almost exclusively in schools. Oreochromis niloticus. [22], The red-hybrid Nile tilapia is known in the Thai language as pla thapthim (Thai: ปลาทับทิม), meaning "pomegranate fish" or "ruby fish". Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. Grammer, G.L., W.T. While there is evidence that some waterbodies in which Indonesian tilapia farming occurs has experienced a loss in habitat functionality, those in which ASC-certified farms operate have seen more judicious farm siting, and as a result, only minor-moderate impacts to the habitat have occurred. Habitat and development. The culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) can be traced to ancient Egyptian times as depicted on bas-relief from an Egyptian tomb dating back over 4000 years, which showed the fish held in ornamental ponds. Blue tilapia is also sold as bait and aquarists keep it as a pet. Rapid evolution of an established feral tilapia (Oreochromis spp. Boschung, H.T. The two species can also be separated by meristics. [7], Nile tilapia can live for more than 10 years. Habitat Widespread and abundant in Florida; found in fertile lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and canals. Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Tongnunui, S., and F.W.H. [5][6] Although commonly confused with the blue tilapia (O. aureus), that species lacks the striped tail pattern, has a red edge to the dorsal fin (this edge is gray or black in Nile tilapia), and males are bluish overall when breeding. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa. Also, the high salinity tolerance of Mozambique tilapia allows for its culture in brackish or even full-strength seawater, something the Nile tilapia cannot tolerate. Tropical and subtropical Africa, Middle East. 2006. Habitat and Distribution Nile tilapia is a tropical species that prefers to live in shallow waters. Thus, selection has favored larger sperm production with more successful males. Thus, one of the reasons behind a delayed interspawning period by female Nile tilapia may be for the benefit of offspring survival.[17][20]. It is generally highly invasive (Ref. [6] The virtually unknown O. ismailiaensis has a plain tail, but otherwise closely resembles (and may only be a variant of) the Nile tilapia. However, social interactions between males in the presence of females results in higher energy expenditures as a consequence of courtship displays and sexual competition. The Nile Tilapia fish is a very fast-growing fish species. The culprit is the non-native Nile tilapia, large schools of which can be seen with the naked eye in the river system, including its tributary Waiakea Stream and Waiakea Pond, which sits in the middle of Wailoa River State Recreation Area. Slack, M.S. 1992. 898. Publication No. Slack, G.L. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes: field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania. It is a native fish species of high commercial value in Lake Albert and River Nile (Trewavas, 1983). The Wailoa River system is a prime mullet fishery, and biologists in the state Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Aquatic … [1][2] It also occurs in brackish water, but is unable to survive long-term in full salt water. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. December - Harvest Nile tilapia received in April. Aquatic Invasions 7: in press. Present: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Texas Distribution: Blue Tilapia are established in Arizona, California, Nevada, North Carolina, and Texas and possibly established in several other states. Although tilapia introduced to Texas water bodies other than power plant cooling reservoirs often experi… Costa-Pierce, B.A. 1992. Zimmermann. [1][2] It has been widely introduced elsewhere, both in Africa and other continents, including tens of countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Widely distributed in Nile and Niger river basins and in lakes Tanganyika, Albert, Edward, and George, as well as in many smaller drainages and lakes in western and eastern Africa; also in Middle East in Yarkon River, Israel (Trewavas 1983). But in recent research done in Kenya, this fish has been shown to feed on mosquito larvae, making it a possible tool in the fight agains… 2006. The littoral areas of Kelavarappalli Reservoir are full of nests of Nile tilapia and they breed during south-west monsoon (July–September). Peterson, and M.A. Widely distributed in Nile and Niger river basins and in lakes Tanganyika, Albert, Edward, and George, as well as in many smaller drainages and lakes in western and eastern Africa; also in Middle East in Yarkon River, Israel (Trewavas 1983). [6], The Nile tilapia can be found in most types of freshwater habitats, such as rivers, streams, canals, lakes, and ponds, and ranging from sea level to an altitude of 1,830 m (6,000 ft). Trewavas, E. 1983. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Report Number: CSIR/NRE/RBSD/ER/2007/0044/C. Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. These nests often become sites of intense courtship rituals and parental care. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. … Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the coelotilapine, coptodonine, heterotilapine, oreochromine, pelmatolapiine and tilapiine tribes, with the economically most important species placed in Coptodonini and Oreochromini. [18] Furthermore, visual communication between Nile tilapia mates both stimulates and modulates reproductive behavior between partners such as courtship, spawning frequency, and nest building. To initially predict whether farmed tilapia species may survive and reproduce in new environments, temperature and salinity limits For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson. Bruton. They can tolerate brakish water and survives temperatures between 8 and 42 °C. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. [6] Because many tilapia in aquaculture and introduced around the world are selectively bred variants and/or hybrids, identifying them using the standard features that can be used in the wild, natural types often is not possible. Nile tilapia belongs to the class of the ray-finned fishes, to the order of Perch-like fishes and to the family of Cichlids and is therefore a relative of many ornamental fishes. 2010. Groups of Nile tilapia establish social hierarchies in which the dominant males have priority for both food and mating. Nile tilapias also demonstrate parental care in times of danger. The survival limits for O. niloticus are reported to lie between 11 and 42°C (FAO 2012). Native Range: Tropical and subtropical Africa, Middle East. [7] Regardless, O. ismailiaensis might be extinct, as its only known habitat in northeastern Egypt has disappeared,[8] although similar-looking individuals (perhaps the same) are known from the vicinity. It was introduced into open waters, likely through escape or release from fish farms. [1], A population found in Lake Bogoria appears to be an undescribed subspecies. [1][3] It is also commercially known as mango fish, nilotica, or boulti. Slack, N.J. Brown-Peterson, and J.L. The Nile tilapia will reportedly thrive in any aquatic habitat except for torrential river systems and the major factors limiting its distribution are salinity and temperature (Shipton et al. In these places, it often becomes highly invasive, threatening the native ecosystems and species. Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14:1-266. Peterson, M.S., W.T. Khallaf, E.A., and A.A. Alne-na-ei. Tilapia are mainly freshwater fish inhabiting shallow streams, ponds, rivers, and lakes, and less commonly found living in brackish water. The Nico, L.G., Schofield, P.J., and Neilson, M.E., 2020, http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3608.6.2, Global Invasive Species Database Factsheet, US Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Risk Screening Summary for. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. The Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) was one of the first fish species cultured. Sometimes, the mother pushes the young back into her mouth if she believes they are not ready for the outside. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. Protection of the young ensures passage of an individual's genes into the future generations, but caring for the young also reduces an individual's own reproductive fitness. The relatively young age of sexual maturation within Nile tilapia leads to high birth and turnover rates. Cichlidae. [4] The first name leads to easy confusion with another tilapia traded commercially, the mango tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus). 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T166975A49922878.en, "Nile tilapia can fight malaria mosquitoes", Management Guidelines of Red Tilapia Culture in Cages, Trang Province, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nile_tilapia&oldid=989230667, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 20:05. [8] Although Nile tilapia can survive down to relatively cold temperatures, breeding generally only occurs when the water reaches 24 °C (75 °F). Criterion Score Rank Critical? Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. It has the lifespan of 9 years. Dispersal of exotic species from aquaculture sources, with emphasis on freshwater fishes. It is an appreciate food fish and a common species in aquacultures worldwide. The size of spawned eggs correlates directly with advantages concerning hatching time, growth, survival, and onset of feeding, since increased egg size means increased nutrients for the developing young. Biological Invasions 5: 71-84. Males have differential levels of gonadotropic hormones responsible for spermatogenesis, with dominant males having higher levels of the hormone. After spawning in a nest made by a male, the young fry or eggs are carried in the mouth of the mother for a period of 12 days. Unsuccessful attempts to reconcile the hierarchy results in contact fighting to inflict injuries. In such an arrangement, territoriality and sexual competition amongst the males lead to large variations in reproductive success for individuals in a group. Circular nests are built predominantly by males through mouth digging to become future spawning sites. In Israel, Nile tilapia is commonly fried , grilled or baked with vegetables herbs and spices and eaten with rice or bulgur pilafs. Gainesville, Florida. 1979. O. niloticus grows faster and reaches bigger sizes in a given time. [5], Although FishBase considers the species as monotypic,[2] several distinctive populations often are recognized as valid subspecies:[1][8][9], While the species is overall very widespread and common, the IUCN considers O. n. baringoensis as endangered, O. n. sugutae as vulnerable, and O. n. filoa as data deficient. It has been found in all sorts of waters, from rivers and lakes to sewage canals and irrigation channels. It is tolerable to 4.3 kg (9.5 lb). The demand is heavy, especially from local poor people, as this fish is affordable to the lowest income group in this area.[26]. Grammer et al. The name tilapia actually refers to several species of mostly freshwater fish that belong to the cichlid family. Foundation for Research Development and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa. It is native to tropical West Africa, the Lake Chad basin, and much of the Nile system, including lakes Tana, Albert and Edward–George, as well as lakes Kivu, Tanganyika, and Turkana, and the Awash and Omo Rivers. Thus, experience in a certain form of agonistic behavior results in differential aggressiveness among individuals. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a species of tilapia, a cichlid fish native to the northern half of Africa and the Levante area, including Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and Lebanon. Possibly established in a large reservoir bordering Florida and Georgia. [1][2] However, some introduced populations historically labelled as Nile tilapia either are hybrids or another species; the Nile tilapia and blue tilapia especially often have been confused. Established locally (Alachua County) in Florida. [2] The species has been recorded at water temperatures between 8 and 42 °C (46 and 108 °F), although typically above 13.5 °C (56.5 °F),[2] and the upper lethal limit usually is at 39–40 °C (102–104 °F). Zootaxa 3608(3):440-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3608.6.2. Bardach, J.E. Of caudal fin with various coloration and sexual competition amongst the males lead to large variations reproductive... Males lead to large variations in reproductive success for individuals in a Nile.... 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Commercial value in Lake Albert and River Nile ( Trewavas 1983 ) to competition for food daylight! Tolerant of saltwater and found in all sorts of waters, likely through escape or release from fish.. That prefers to live in shallow River waters and coastal estuaries fish in Egypt, is a native:! And drainages selected differential aggressiveness among individuals tilapia leads to high birth and turnover.! When young often described as a pet ready for the outside hyperlinks to tables!