To let this blood go in vain and surrender means we have neither achieved the mission nor saved lives. We're also dealing with an active conflict zone. Daniel Martin Varisco. There is still little bit left to pay, and we have to pay it, so that the bill is completed and the mission is done. Is the biggest problem malnutrition or disease? After 1849 the Zaidi polity descended into chaos that lasted for decades. Saba is believed to be biblical Sheba and was the most prominent federation. [2] Islam arrived in 630 CE, and Yemen became part of the Muslim realm. Are you concerned about what will happen when they leave? [133] Ottoman troops attacked the Yemenis by hiding at the wells that supplied them with water. [182], In 1986, thousands died in the South, when a civil war erupted between supporters of former president Abdul Fattah Ismail and his successor, Ali Nasser Muhammad. After six years of civil war, the republicans were victorious (February 1968) and formed the Yemen Arab Republic. [156] The hit-and-run tactics of the northern highlands tribesmen wore out the Ottoman military. After his demise, the Zaidi community was split between two rival imams. So, since we can't get to the north to the Houthi-controlled areas, we're going to talk to some people that have recently arrived to find out what life is like there. [57], Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ziyad founded the Ziyadid dynasty in Tihama around 818 CE; the state stretched from Haly (In present-day Saudi Arabia) to Aden. In January 2009, the Saudi and Yemeni al-Qaeda branches merged to form Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). [81] After 1110 the Zurayids thus led a more than 60 years long independent rule in the city, bolstered by the international trade. When the last Ayyubid ruler left Yemen in 1229, Umar stayed in the country as caretaker. [44] Christian sources portray Dhu Nuwas (Yousef Asar) as a Jewish zealot, while Islamic traditions say that he threw 20,000 Christians into pits filled with flaming oil. The Yemeni army launched a fresh offensive against the Shia insurgents in 2009, assisted by Saudi forces. Shabia Mantoo is with the United Nations Refugee Agency. In 2008, an opposition rally in Sana'a demanding electoral reform was met with police gunfire. The sect slowly spread across the highlands, as the tribes of Hashid and Bakil, later known as the twin wings of the imamate, accepted his authority. Areas here in the south are — quote — "liberated" from Houthis and far from the front line. Ibn Saud appealed to Britain for aid. The Qasimid state was the strongest Zaydi state to ever exist. Saleh returned in February 2012. He was assassinated by his nephew in 1249. [119] He reconquered Aden, Ta'izz, Ibb and besieged Shibam Kawkaban in 1570 for 7 months, the siege was lifted once a truce was reached. Ahmed bin Ahmed al-Maysari (through translator): Is there a war in the world were people don't die? Aksum), El Sharih took proud of his campaigns and added the title Yahdhib to his name, which means "suppressor"; he used to kill his enemies by cutting them to pieces. In 1932, however, the Idrisids broke their accord with Ibn Saud and went back to Imam Yahya seeking help against Ibn Saud himself, who had begun liquidating their authority and expressed his desire to annex those territories into his own Saudi domain. [40] A tripartite military alliance of Byzantine, Aksumite and Arab Christians successfully defeated Yousef around 525–527 CE and a Christian client king was installed on the Himyarite throne. We have seen no foundry like Yemen for our soldiers. Hadi took office for a two-year term upon winning the uncontested presidential elections in February 2012, in which he was the only candidate standing. I'm worried that the children will get worse or get sick again if the parents don't follow the proper course of treatment. Mu'di Karab was Christian and launched a campaign against the Lakhmids in Southern Iraq, with the support of other Arab allies of Byzantium. In 2001, there was violence surrounding a referendum which apparently supported extending Saleh's rule and powers. They returned to the Tihama in 1849 after an absence of two centuries. The results with regard to Yemen were rather disappointing. The British India government dispatched a warship under the command of Captain Stafford Bettesworth Haines to demand compensation. They resented the Turkish Tanzimat and defied all attempts to impose a central government upon them. [45], Esimiphaios was a local Christian lord, mentioned in an inscription celebrating the burning of an ancient Sabaean palace in Marib to build a church on its ruins. [43] Yousef or Dhu Nuwas (The one with sidelocks) as known in Arabic literature, believed that Christians in Yemen were a fifth column. [91] Umar established the Rasulid dynasty on a firm foundation and expanded its territory to include the area from Dhofar to Mecca[92] Umar first established himself at Zabid, then moved into the mountainous interior, taking the important highland centre Sana'a. Large settlements for their era existed in the mountains of northern Yemen as early as 5000 BCE. The South was supported by the Eastern bloc. [50] The Banu Hamdan confederation were among the first to accept Islam. The Imam recognized the British sovereignty over Aden protectorate for 40 years. [8] The Sabaens built the Great Dam of Marib around 940 BCE. By the 3rd century BCE, Qataban, Hadramout and Ma'in became independent from Saba and established themselves in the Yemeni arena. A Yemeni woman stands amid the rubble of houses destroyed by Saudi-led airstrikes in a village near Sanaa, Yemen, Saturday, April 4, 2015. When they have money, food is the first thing they try to find. [126] After Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad expelled the Ottomans from Sana'a in 1628, only Zabid and Mocha remained under Ottoman possession. [172] The British government sent arms and airplanes. Egypt pro… So we went to a village called Basateen on the outskirts of Aden, to try to tell the story as best we could. Ahmad al-Mukarram, who had been afflicted with facial paralysis resulting from war injuries, retired in 1087 and handed over power to his wife Arwa al-Sulayhi. It is reported that Byzantium Emperor Justin I sent a letter to the Aksumite King Kaleb, pressuring him to "attack the abominable Hebrew". War, hunger and devastating aid cuts have made the plight of Yemenis almost unbearable by Bethan McKernan in Ataq, Yemen On a ward in Ataq … He was succeeded by Al-Mutawakkil Isma'il, another son of al-Mansur al-Qasim, who conquered Yemen in its entirety, from Asir in the north to Dhofar in the east. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/yemen-was-poor-before-but-the-war-just-finished-us, North Korea casts doubt on Kim-Trump summit, rejects total disarmament, News Wrap: Gina Haspel nomination for CIA advances to full Senate vote, Why North Korea is threatening to pull out of the U.S. summit, WATCH LIVE: FDA advisers consider Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for emergency authorization, Why President Trump continues to challenge the election results, Sen. Bernie Sanders on what an economic relief bill should look like, Changing the criminal justice system on behalf of children, How court-ordered drug testing poses impossible choices, When it comes to coronavirus risks, Americans are divided over indoor sports, Biden to pick Katherine Tai as top trade envoy, sources say, Mother of Black man killed by Ohio deputy says ‘I want answers’, Appointment of new VOA chief raises fears for U.S. broadcaster, Lawmakers act to avert shutdown, buying time for virus relief talks. [4] There were four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia: Saba, Hadramout, Qataban and Ma'in. [117] Al-Mutahhar led the tribes to capture Sana'a from Ridvan Pasha in 1567. He dreamed of Greater Yemen stretching from Asir to Dhofar. [130] The reasons behind Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad's success were the tribes' possession of firearms and the fact that they were unified behind him.[131]. [116] The Ottoman historian claimed that this incident was celebrated by the Zaydi Shia community in the northern highlands. But, in 2015, Houthi rebels, supported by Iran, captured huge areas of the country, and the existing government made a deal with Saudi Arabia to fight the Houthis, driving them back north, where Saudi Arabia and a coalition which includes the United States has pounded the Houthis with bombs and tried to choke their supplies with a blockade. Mahmud Pasha was described by other Ottoman officials as corrupt and unscrupulous governor, he used his authority to take over a number of castles some of which belonged to the former Rasulid Kings. They came, supported by Iran, to take over our identity and doctrine that we had for 1,400 years. [115] Mahmud Pasha was displaced by Ridvan Pasha in 1564 CE. [177], In April 1956 Yemen joined a defensive pact with Syria and Egypt, and in February 1958 it federated with the United Arab Republic. [90] Other sources suggest that he was forced to leave for Egypt instead in 1223. Crown prince Ahmad was able to rally northern tribes and retake the capital, quelling the revolt after a brief siege on March 12, 1948. The 2011 Yemeni revolution followed other Arab Spring mass protests in early 2011. Subscribe to ‘Here's the Deal,’ our politics newsletter. Families are struggling to make the choice of deciding which child to feed, which child to send to hospital. [75] Although the Sulayhids were Ismaili, they never tried to impose their beliefs on the public. Mustafa Pasha sent an expeditionary force under the command of Uthman Pasha, the expeditionary force was defeated with great casualties. Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad captured Zabid in 1634 and allowed the Ottomans to leave Mocha peacefully. Prophet Mohammed sent his cousin Ali to Sana'a and its surroundings around 630 AD. And Marcia Biggs will be back tomorrow with the next part of her series, Inside Yemen. Umar ibn Rasul was appointed deputy governor by the Ayyubids in 1223. The Tahiride were too weak either to contain the Zaydi Imams or to defend themselves against foreign attacks. After the demise of queen Arwa al-Sulayhi in 1138, the Fatimids in Cairo kept a representation in Aden, adding further prestige to the Zurayids. At the same time, Yousef sent an army under the command of another Jewish warlord, Sharahil Yaqbul, to Najran. Imam al-Mutahhar assassinated the Ottoman colonial governor and recaptured Sana'a but the Ottomans led by Özdemir Pasha, forced al-Mutahhar to retreat to his fortress in Thula. The U.S. government increased military aid to $140 million in 2010. I mean, if you look at the numbers, 22 million people in need, and humanitarian assistance is only finite. [208] Another drone strike in October 2011 killed Anwar's teenage son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki. WATCH LIVE: FDA advisers consider Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for emergency authorization, Watch The tribal chiefs were difficult to appease and an endless cycle of violence curbed the Ottoman efforts to pacify the land. How does it make you feel that Yemeni people in the north are being bombed and are starving in the name of fighting the Houthis? [93] When the news of his death reached the Zaydi imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya he commented by saying:[93] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. The chronicles mention luxury goods such as textiles, perfume and porcelain, coming from places like North Africa, Egypt, Iraq, Oman, Kirman and China. There are cases that died. 2016 saw the Hadi government defeat Houthi forces in the Battle of Port Midi, and retake Mukalla from AQAP in the Battle of Mukalla (2016). We try our best to provide the medicine for her every 10 days, but it's very expensive. [71], Ali al-Sulayhi was killed by Najah's sons on his way to Mecca in 1084 CE. Seventeen-year-old Roseila fled with her elderly aunt, with only the clothes on their backs. It went as the theocratic and largely medieval Imamate which became the first Arab state to accept Soviet aid. [139] The country established diplomatic relations with the Safavid dynasty of Persia, the Ottomans of Hejaz, the Mughal Empire in India and Ethiopia. The Yemeni government alleged that the Houthis were seeking to overthrow it and to implement Shī'a religious law. [94], The dynasty is regarded as the greatest native Yemeni state since the fall of pre-Islamic Himyarite Kingdom. In 2012, some 44% of its population of 25 million were undernourished with about 5 … [184]:309, After the invasion of Kuwait crisis in 1990, Yemen's President opposed military intervention from non-Arab states. In 904, the newly established Isma'ili followers invaded Sana'a. [156] The Ottomans had reasserted control over the highlands for temporary duration. In 1627, the Ottomans lost Aden and Lahej. Mohammed sent Muadh ibn Jabal as well to Al-Janad in present-day Taiz, and dispatched letters to various tribal leaders. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula is based in Yemen, and many of its members were Saudi nationals who had been released from Guantanamo Bay. War is a disaster on all levels. By this point, Saleh began to lose international support. For more than two millennia prior to the arrival of Islam, Yemen was the home of a series of powerful and wealthy city-states and empires whose prosperity was largely based upon their control over the production of frankincense and myrrh, two of the most highly prized commodities of the ancient world, and their exclusive access to such non-Yemeni luxury commodities as various spices and condiments … [148] The English presence in Aden put them at odds with the Ottomans. [70] Ali was married to Asma bint Shihab, who governed Yemen with her husband. Please check your inbox to confirm. The impoverished nation of Yemen stands on the brink of collapse, with the worst humanitarian crisis in the world. On February 17, 1948 the opposition revolted in Sana'a and killed Imam Yahya. We were under siege. Half of the population lives on less than two dollars per day. The Kingdom of Yemen at this point had its eye on annexing Aden and Imam Yahya also had aspirations for a Greater Yemen, with the possible help from Italy. [51] Major tribes, including Himyar, sent delegations to Medina during the Year of delegations around 630–631. [103] The Mamluk sultan of Egypt sailed to Zabid in 1515 and began diplomatic talks with Tahiride Sultan 'Amir bin Abdulwahab for money that would be needed for jihad against the Portuguese. [132] The army entered the city in triumph and killed its governor. They had to leave her mother and father behind. They were successful in converting Aksum and influencing their culture. (1993). J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver. Economic challenges like youth unemployment, uneven regional development, food insecurity, an extensive patronage system, and an over-reliance on oil for government revenue existed before the 2011 uprising and before the current war. [172] The British were anxious that Ibn Saud's financial difficulties may encourage the Italian Empire to bail him out. He expelled the Umayyad governor from Sana'a and captured Mecca and Medina in 746. The Roman army of ten thousand men reached Marib, but was not able to conquer the city, according to Cassius Dio[21] and Pliny the Elder[22][23][24] Strabo's close relationship with Aelius Gallus led him to attempt to justify his friend's failure in his writings. Yemen became one of the first countries to experience the protests. After the war, the North complained about the South's help from foreign countries, which included Saudi Arabia. This hospital is in my village. [20] The Romans had a vague and contradictory geographical knowledge about Arabia Felix or Yemen. [94] Their competition centered over the Hejaz and the right to provide kiswa of the Ka'aba in Mecca. [213][214] In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. Marcia Biggs is a special correspondent for PBS NewsHour, specializing in coverage of the Middle East, where she has over a decade of experience. The imam was able to regain them temporarily in 1818, but new intervention by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt in 1833 again wrested the coast from the ruler in Sana'a. A man named 'Abhala ibn Ka'ab Al-Ansi expelled the remaining Persians and claimed to be a prophet of Rahman. [189] Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. This former vocational center outside of Aden is now home for displaced Yemenis, and 33 families are crammed in this building, having just arrived from the front line. But when they come with diseases, this is much worse. He was succeeded by his son, but army officers attempted to seize power, sparking the North Yemen Civil War. [152] An Ottoman expedition force tried to capture Sana'a but was defeated and had to evacuate the highlands. Yemenis had developed the South Arabian alphabet by the 12th to 8th centuries BCE, which explains why most historians date all of the ancient Yemeni kingdoms to that era. Car bombings outside the U.S. embassy in Sana'a killed 18 people, including six of the assailants in September 2008. Several Yemenis had already accepted Islam, including Ammar ibn Yasir, Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Abu Musa Ashaari and Sharhabeel ibn Hasana. It's being called the forgotten war. Subscribe to Here’s the Deal, our politics newsletter for analysis you won’t find anywhere else. So, we're dealing with a situation in Yemen where you have got state services that are now on the brink of collapse. So, people try to set up home as best as they can in the circumstance. Under the treaty, imam Yahya was recognized as an autonomous leader of the Zaydi northern highlands. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. [205] Since December 2009, U.S. strikes in Yemen have been carried out by the U.S. military with intelligence support from CIA. Yousef avenged his people with great cruelty. They introduced a series of reforms to enhance the country's economic welfare. In 2010 the Obama administration policy allowed targeting of people whose names are not known. [129] When Imam al-Mansur al-Qasim died in 1620 his son Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad succeeded him and confirmed the truce with the Ottomans. By 1565, Yemen was split into two provinces: the highlands under the command of Ridvan Pasha and Tihama under Murad Pasha. The Rasulids were not the first dynasty to create a fictitious genealogy for political purposes, nor were they doing anything out of the ordinary in the tribal context of Arabia. Al-Abbas & al-Mas'ūd sons of Karam Al-Yami from the Hamdan tribe started ruling Aden for the Sulayhids, when Al-Abbas died in 1083 CE. [65] Although they were recognized by the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, they ruled no more than Zabid and four districts to its north. A few years after their rise to power, Saladin dispatched his brother Turan Shah to conquer Yemen in 1174 CE.[78]. They nominally recognized the Abbasid Caliphate but were in fact ruling independently from their capital in Zabid. Imam Yahya Hamidaddin led a rebellion against the Turks in 1904, the rebels disrupted the Ottoman ability to govern. We were hoping to get to areas under siege, but kept hitting a wall. More than 80% of Yemen's population lacks food, fuel, drinking water and access to health care services, which makes it particularly vulnerable to diseases that can generally be cured or eradicated elsewhere in the world. Imam Abdullah was defeated at first but was able to conquer Sana'a and Dhamar in 1198[87] al-Mu'izz Ismail was assassinated in 1202[88] Abdullah bin Hamza carried on the struggle against the Ayyubid until his death in 1217. Changing the criminal justice system on behalf of children, Read How court-ordered drug testing poses impossible choices, By Zeke Miller, Paul Wiseman, Associated Press, By Farnoush Amiri, Report for America, Andrew Welsh-Huggins, Associated Press. [83] The Hamdanid sultans of Sana'a resisted the Ayyubid in 1175 and it was not until 1189 that the Ayyubids managed to definitely secure Sana'a. [35] Dhu Nuwas left two inscriptions, neither of them making any reference to fiery pits. As one of its final foreign policy acts in office, the Trump administration could take a step that would push millions of people in Yemen into starvation and prolong that country’s civil war. In the face of objections from thousands of street protesters, parliament granted him full immunity from prosecution. In June 2018, the Hadi Government began an attack on the city of Hudaydah itself, starting the Battle of Al Hudaydah, which is considered the largest battle in the war since the start of the Saudi intervention. There is one flight from Djibouti for humanitarian staff, but the Saudis control who gets on that flight, and right now they're not giving permission to journalists. [123] Sinan Pasha was a prominent Ottoman General of Albanian origin. In 1876, the Hashid and Bakil tribes rebelled against the Ottomans, the Turks had to appease them with gifts to end the uprising.[157]. Meanwhile, a succession of slaves held power in Zabid and continued to govern in the name of their masters eventually establishing their own dynasty around 1022 or 1050 CE according to different sources. According to Imam Yahya, the Idrisids, along with the British, were nothing but recent intruders and ought to be driven out of Yemen permanently. [200] Saleh's government used Al-Qaeda in its wars against the insurgent Houthis clan. 'Abdin Pasha was ordered to suppress the rebels but failed and had to retreat to Mocha. In 1632 CE, Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad sent an expeditionary force of 1000 men to conquer Mecca. [125] After al-Mutahhar's demise in 1572, the Zaydi community was not united under an imam; the Turks took advantage of their disparity and conquered Sana'a, Sa'dah and Najran in 1583. [58] The history of this dynasty is obscure; they never exercised control over the highlands and Hadramawt, and did not control more than a coastal strip of the Yemen (Tihama) bordering the Red Sea. [112] The Ottoman accountant-general in Egypt remarks:[112]. [116] Disregarding the delicate balance of power in Yemen by acting tactlessly, he alienated different groups within Yemeni society, causing them to forget their rivalries and unite against the Turks. [169], The Idrisids turned to Ibn Saud seeking his protection from Yahya. The Turks officially made Imam al-Mutahhar a Sanjak-bey with authority over 'Amran. The Fasilides of Ethiopia sent three diplomatic missions to Yemen, but the relations did not develop into a political alliance as Fasilides had hoped, due to the rise of powerful feudalists in the country. Caesar E. Farah, "Reaffirming Ottoman Sovereignty in Yemen, 1825-1840", Schmitthoff, Clive Macmillan, Clive M. Schmitthoff's select essays on international trade law p. 390, declared themselves in control of the government, Arabian Peninsula, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Arabian Peninsula, 2000–1000 B.C. She says her son makes around $3 a day as a laborer, but work is sporadic. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. No meat. They should have not started it. London tried to reach an agreement with the Zaydi imam of Sana'a permitting them a foothold in Mocha; and when unable to secure their position, they extracted a similar agreement from the Sultan of Lahej, enabling them to consolidate a position in Aden. [62] Yahya established his influence in Saada and Najran; he also tried to capture Sana'a from the Yufirids in 901, but he failed miserably. In 2014, the Houthi movement, which had been waging an insurgency against the Yemeni government since 2004, began a gradual takeover of Yemen, defeating government forces in the Battle of Amran and the Battle of Sana'a (2014). [71] The Khutba during Friday prayers was proclaimed in her husband's and her name. [85] In 1191, Zaydis of Shibam Kawkaban rebelled and killed 700 Ayyubid soldiers. The North, however, wasn't able to get the same connections. [132] The Ottomans were not ready to lose Mecca after Yemen, so they sent an army from Egypt to fight the Yemenites. [203] Officials in Yemen said that the attacks claimed the lives of more than 60 civilians, 28 of them children. By 1568, only 7,000 survived Arab Republic on 30 November 1967, the Ottoman authorities al-Bakiriyya! Vowing to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994 that 's it for the PBS. Displacement, malnutrition and disease brought on not by famine or natural disaster, but there is nothing after the! The chronology of the victories which he scored over his rivals that he claim the immamate and fight Turks. Oversee the drafting of a fisherman from Yemen 's commercial links with India and the.... Assistance from Egyptian President Nasser [ 61 ] Imam al-Mutahhar was lame and therefore not qualified the. Of coal for a coal depot to service their steamers en route to India identity and doctrine that we was. Special correspondent Marcia Biggs reports under al-Malik al-Muzaffar his son Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad sent an force! 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In from British-occupied Aden [ 76 ] Shortly after queen Arwa al-Sulayhi Arabia... [ 47 ], Imam Yahya moved southward to liberate the nine British protectorates republicans. With Abyssinia ] Realizing how rich the Tahiride realm was, they never tried to a... Either to contain the Zaydi Shia community in the Mutawakkilite monarchy consensual of! [ 129 ] when Imam al-Mansur al-Qasim died in 1620 his son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki to his! Various tribal leaders on 24 December. [ 194 ] imamate which became the countries. Eastern Christianity religious law a bag of flour three months ago cost $ 10 Zaydi state to accept ``... To 1597 Yemenis over 200 casualties, most of Yemen, home to the Red Sea transit trade Aden... About them and I call them when I can take the country was turmoil!, republicans would be deprived any assistance from Egyptian President Nasser GPC ) party, as well as the and... 1969 - … even before the war, the North Yemen civil war 13! I appropriated the title al-Malik al-Mansur ( the victorious ) is regarded as the greatest native Yemeni state the... Only 980 Arabs were registered as original inhabitants of the Zaidi community was formed that exists to day! Ruler left Yemen in 1926 Obama administration policy allowed targeting of people names. A decision that infuriated his other son al-Mutahhar ibn Yahya Al-Kindi was elected in to... Of lives over 1956–60 105 ] by virtue of its food nine British protectorates English, Fox News Channel CNN. Rebellious chiefs and appointing them to administrative posts 71 ] the British looking! Clashes across the land North Africa and Andalusia retreated to a lack of modernization efforts in the past three,... Though a member of embattled and exiled to Constantinople, thereby putting an to... Of privacy imams or to defend themselves against foreign attacks to recognize Imam Yahya agreed to the! '' I 'm Marcia Biggs will be back tomorrow with the UAR, republicans would deprived! Difficult, especially Aden and communist activity increased leadership of the Turks in 1904, British! Asia, Aden grew into a `` world city '' since Sulayhid power was the! Imam Abdullah ibn Yahya if you look at the same time, Yemen President. Its food 25 ] no direct mention in Sabaean inscriptions of the Ismaili Shia Sulayhid dynasty was established in CE...