Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. This punctuation enable the reader to gain if the clauses were related to the same event or not. Writing the words without either of them would simply be wrong. The store is closed. He went by DC for Danger Cat though. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Let’s start with the fact that unless a name or title is the last word(s) in a sentence, it can either be used with no commas at all, OR with a comma both before and after. If a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, it should have a comma immediately after it. If it refers to a panda that eats (a meal), shoots (a gun) and leaves (the restaurant), then the comma is required to separate the items. Commas and However This page is about whether to use a semicolon or a comma before however. The Associated Press (AP) Manual of Style and Usage, which is the style followed by most newspapers, many newsletters and many websites, is a less-formal style that doesn't use the serial comma (a, b and c) UNLESS one of the elements in the list is a compound (a, b and c, and d), although a lot of newspaper copy editors and proofreaders don't seem to remember that these days. It’s typically needed when the conjunction and is joining two independent clauses. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. When you use more than one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to separate them. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. A very short quotation may also be introduced without punctuation. • Colons and semicolons always follow closing quotation marks of quoted material.Two examples: (1) He said "no"; she said "yes"; and some said neither "yes" nor "no." A lot of AP style elements came into being to save space; not using serial commas does just that - save space. 1. Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class. It is, furthermore, out of my control. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. Preventing Confusion. Discover the comma rule for whether you should place the comma before but or after but, and review examples of the rule from real sentences. He has changed his view on a lot of things since reading the book. Rule 1. If the sentence is combining two independent clauses together then the comma should appear. 2. Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. They’re also important. These break up the sentence to create emphasis or to show emotion or tone. She is very noisy, but she’s also very smart. If you use these words at the beginning of a sentence, put a comma after them. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. These nonessential sections often begin with words such as who or which. Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. First of all, the original question was whether it's correct to put a comma AFTER "and," while all the answers seem to be discussing commas that go before an "and." You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. For example: for, and, so, and or are all conjunctions. With “and” and “or,” the same rules apply, as you’ll see in the following examples: With a comma (independent clause + independent clause): "Before" may, but need not necessarily, be preceded by a comma. If the items in the list are longer and more complicated, you should always place a final comma before the conjunction. If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. This is not good as it would become, "I am heading to station I'll call you." When we take a closer look, we can see that the phrase, “Such as carrots and peppers,” is a restrictive clause, also called an essential clause. That comma is optional. Therefore, it is an essential phrase, meaning there is no comma before such as. If you remove the part after work, the meaning of the sentence remains intact, albeit, without the extra info. Take Dave's example: 'To my parents, Ayn Rand and God.' The fact that Michael Wolff pointed out in his post only proves that it is a very subjective issue. Main Takeaways: A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. If the phrase refers to a panda that devours bamboo shoots and bamboo leaves, then there is no comma at all ('A panda eats shoots and leaves.'). Commas indicate a pause in a sentence. If it is a list of three, leaving out the serial comma avoids the ambiguity altogether. Means that the cat ran from the dog's barking. In the phrase 'To my mother, Ayn Rand, and God,' the second comma is a serial comma, if and only if Ayn Rand is not my mother so that there are three separate persons in the list. But what about this: 'To my mother, Ayn Rand, and God.' Most entertaining. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. This question is easily answered. In the USA, it's usually called the Oxford comma and is mandated by the Chicago Manual of Style and several other style manuals or guides used in academic and book publishing. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. ü Where the sentence is focussing on a particular person. I'm taking a shower to clean up, and feel refreshed, before heading out. They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. Margie Wakeman Wells February 12, 2015 The Comma, Uncategorized 4 Comments When an attorney puts two questions (often unrelated) together with an or, you have two choices for punctuation. It's incorrect in a simple list such as "apples, oranges and lemons", where many people feel the urge to use it; however, it is acceptable in a sentence such as "the accounts department have discovered the whereabouts of the missing thousand pounds and, unfortunately, we're going to have to fire you.". Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. Oxford, Harvard, or, grammatically, the serial comma is mandatory in US english; but in UK english it is optional. This is one of those tricky grey areas of grammar where some authorities believe a comma is outright wrong, others that it is allowable. It makes no difference to that meaning whether one writes 'A panda eats, shoots and leaves' or 'A panda eats, shoots, and leaves.'. The answer is TRUE. In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! However, this next sentence would require a comma before the "and". You may, therefore, continue with the project. But as Dave Null observed, in other configurations, it is leaving out the serial comma that creates the ambiguity. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. Here the serial comma allows it to be read either as a list of three or as a list of two in which Ayn Rand is the author's mother. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). Some say it is no longer to be used, but some say it is. Take a breath. An independent clause can stand alone. When To Use A Comma After But The only time you’ll need a comma after but is when you add an “interrupter” right after it. However, this sentence structure may not be as common as placing it at the end. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. Simply look at the sentence in question and decide whether or not the sentence would still flow without the middle section. 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