Baker24 theorized that professional codes of ethics evolve in 3 distinct stages: traditionalism, formalization, and professionalization. Physical therapists shall take responsibility for their professional development based on critical self-assessment and reflection on changes in physical therapist practice, education, health care delivery, and technology. 5C. Laabs Physical therapists involved in research shall abide by accepted standards governing protection of research participants. We believe that the deliberate process of discussion, debate, and moral dialogue is a significant indicator of the maturation and professionalization of physical therapy. Purpose The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a historical, professional, and theoretical context for this important revision; (2) to describe the 4-year revision process; (3…, Engaging the professional community: rewriting a code of ethics for NZ physiotherapists, Assimilation of the Patient Rights Law and Code of Ethics into Israeli Physical Therapy Services, Constrained Physical Therapist Practice: An Ethical Case Analysis of Recommending Discharge Placement From the Acute Care Setting, The impact of an evolving profession on the frequency and perceived difficulty of ethical encounters among physical therapists in the clinic, New Perspectives on the Theory of Justice: Implications for Physical Therapy Ethics and Clinical Practice, Development and Integration of Professional Core Values Among Practicing Clinicians. . A description of the depth and breadth of debate is beyond the scope of this article, but the debate included discussions about personal biases and discrimination, patient empowerment and collaboration, exploitation of all individuals over whom physical therapists and physical therapist assistants have influence, personal boundaries, impaired colleagues, reimbursement for services, and advocacy for health care services. The 2000 Annual Report of the EJC described the resulting documents as “much more patient-centered than their predecessors. It would be unfortunate if the emphasis on a code of ethics as a product obscured the value of the process by which a code is developed and subsequently revised. M B Code of Ethics and Business Conduct Last Revised on: September 8, 2017 . In June of 2009, the House of Delegates (HOD) of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) took a decisive and historic action when it passed a major revision of the Code of Ethics1 and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant.2 In passing the revised documents, the HOD included a proviso that the new documents would not take effect until July 1, 2010, in order to provide time to educate members about the new ethical standards. Internal communications within APTA suggest that there was growing concern about the adequacy of the Code of Ethics as early as 1999. Fort Washington has adopted this Code of Ethics in accordance with the provisions of Rule 17j-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, as well as the Investment Advisers Act, Rule 204A-1. First, it was unique in the number of people who were involved in the dialogue about ethical matters through presentations and discussions at APTA Combined Sections Meetings and Annual Conferences, chapter delegate discussions, HOD bulletin board discussions, the online surveys, presentations and forums at section meetings, and the HOD meeting. 3A. At the same time, the dialogue among the EJC, BOD, and HOD did not necessarily engender widespread reflection on the core ethics documents. Acknowledging and accepting consequences of his/her actions. Coady 3B. Following review by the Reference Committee of the HOD, 2 substantive changes were made to the format of the documents prior to submission to the HOD. In retrospect and using Purtilo's language, it may be that the “seeds” of the 2009 revision were sown in the 1999 period following the adoption of the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice and Vision 2020. MJ 1300 I Street NW Suite 1200 East Washington, DC 20005 Telephone: (202) 496-4800 Fax: (202) 496-4324 In this same article, Purtilo recognized the roots of modern codes of ethics in the Hippocratic Oath and the Oath of Maimonides, both of which provided a foundation for subsequent formal codes of ethics. Data from the 2 survey phases were aggregated without identification or differentiation of the source of individual responses or comments. Verify Group of Companies Code of Ethics and Business Conduct. Physical therapists are encouraged to seek additional advice or consultation in instances where the guidance of the, Throughout the document the primary core values that support specific principles are indicated in parentheses. Physical therapists shall evaluate the strength of evidence and applicability of content presented during professional development activities before integrating the content or techniques into practice. Copyright © 2020 American Physical Therapy Association. 2E. Physical therapist assistants shall act in the best interests of patients/clients over the interests of the physical therapist assistant. As Linker suggested, a code of ethics provides a “window” into the profession in a historical context. Although limited revision on an ongoing basis would contribute to maintaining relevancy, constant major revision would perhaps prove to be a distraction to the HOD and would make it difficult for members to know the current ethical obligations. 1A. Beauchamp Physical therapists shall collaborate with patients/clients to empower them in decisions about their health care. A significant body of ethics scholarship has documented the limitations of “principlism.”43–45 This literature observes that focusing on principles overemphasizes deductive rational processes and pays too little attention to other important ethical processes such as caring, relationships, intuition, virtue, character, emotions,46 and moral courage. (4) Promote activities for the dissemination of information on ethics. Black . Jan 1, 2018, the new edition of the code goes into effect. Practitioners may use the Code of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant to obtain more specific guidance to inform ethical decision making in their interactions with patients and clients, colleagues, other health care professionals, employers, and organizations. This material is copyrighted, and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited. . Although most of the literature about codes of ethics focuses on their positive purposes, it also is widely accepted that codes of ethics may be self-serving or function in negative ways within society. As indicated in Table 3, the Bylaws of APTA31 give the HOD the sole authority for adopting ethical principles and standards to govern the conduct of members of the Association in their roles as physical therapists and physical therapist assistants.31, Excerpts From American Physical Therapy Association Bylaws and Standing Rules Delineating Authority for Ethical Matters31,32. Physical therapists shall provide the information necessary to allow patients or their surrogates to make informed decisions about physical therapy care or participation in clinical research. LL Similarly, the higher standard potentially could be used by patients and clients in supporting civil claims. The HOD had traditionally left the process of specifying ethical principles to the EJC through the interpretations in the Guide for Professional Conduct and the Guide for Conduct of the Physical Therapist Assistant. Although there is little written about the process involved in previous APTA revisions, it appears that the process begun in 2006 and completed in 2009 was unique in several ways. Swisher Despite the clarity of the APTA Bylaws about the responsibility of the HOD for the core ethics documents, a number of delegates had legitimate practical concerns about the ability of such a large group (approximately 400 delegates) to effectively review and edit both documents, especially in light of the expanded content of this revision. PTs and PTAs demonstrate ethics and professionalism by living their core values and working to achieve optimal health and wellness. Baker Seeking and responding to feedback from multiple sources. Factor analysis as a tool for survey analysis using a professional role orientation inventory as an example, The internal morality of clinical medicine: a paradigm for the ethics of the helping and healing professions, Professional codes and moral understanding. The second section, “Purpose of the NASW Code of Ethics,” provides an overview of the Position: a firmly held Association stance or point of view. This process of self-criticism, codification, and consciousness-raising reinforces or redefines the profession's collective responsibility and is an important learning and maturing experience for both individual members and the profession.12(pp112–113). TL 2). Wilensky Last year, the association joined fellow members of the Alliance for Integrity in Medicare in support of a bill in the US House of Representatives that seeks to eliminate self-referral exemptions for so-called "in-office ancillary services"—physical therapy, anatomic pathology, advanced imaging, and radiation oncology. The revised documents should set forth principles for the ethical practice of physical therapy that address the multitude of physical therapist and physical therapist assistant practice settings and roles applicable to individual, organizational, and societal realms. Both the Code of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant changed substantively in light of survey feedback. Greenfield Professional codes: why, how, and with what impact? Physical therapists who have knowledge that a colleague is unable to perform their professional responsibilities with reasonable skill and safety shall report this information to the appropriate authority. Although we may not all agree on every point within the documents, as a profession we have done our collective best to capture what we believe to be our professional duties, and perhaps we have come together as a moral community. It is reasonable, however, to articulate the significance of these revisions within historical parameters, the continued maturation of the physical therapy profession, the significance of revisions for practitioners, the openness of the process for revision, the theoretical basis for the changes, the experiences of individuals and groups involved in the effort, and the potential regulatory implications of the revised Code and Standards. Lichentberg Although the online survey was not a scientific sample, it nevertheless constituted another source of data as to whether the revised documents were representative of current practice. Figures represent the percentage of respondents who responded “agree” (4) or “strongly agree” (5). Linker observed that “codes of ethics are dynamic documents that provide a unique window into the workings of interprofessional conflicts and negotiations. According to its preamble, all physical therapists are responsible for maintaining and promoting ethical and competent practice and establishing a standard of conduct. Physical therapists shall not harass anyone verbally, physically, emotionally, or sexually. INTRODUCTION In June 2009, the House of Delegates (HOD) of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) passed a major revision of the APTA Code of Ethics for physical therapists and the Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. Caillard, RB Although it is not possible to predict whether this will cause more physical therapists or physical therapist assistants to be cited for violations of their practice act, it is true that the revised documents set an elevated and more detailed standard of ethical conduct and perhaps provide a clearer basis for state regulatory agencies to evaluate whether someone might have engaged in unethical conduct. 2) to a targeted group of approximately 400 physical therapy leaders, inviting them to complete the online surveys by October 1. As described in the example, a full understanding of these general obligations would require reading both numbered (general) and lettered (specific) principles. The first section, “Preamble,” summarizes the social work profession’s mission and core values. 8D. The persons they see are dependent, anxious, in distress, and lacking something essential to human flourishing.… Humans in these compromised existential states are eminently vulnerable and exploitable. Delegating the important process of specification of principles to the EJC had the practical effect of confining moral dialogue about the meaning of the principles to a relatively small group of members: the 5 appointed members of the EJC. . The survey included a total of 128 Likert items for the Code of Ethics and a total of 114 Likert items for the Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. 2). The revised Code of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant also may have regulatory significance in states that have provisions requiring adherence to APTA's ethical documents or the “standards of ethics of the profession” within state practice acts. 4F. Black, MDiv, PhD, whose vision was instrumental to the revision process. 4755-27-05 Code of ethical conduct for physical therapists and physical therapist assistants. Psychoanalysis is a method of treating children, adolescents and adults with emotional and mental disorders that attempts to reduce suffering and disability and enhance growth and autonomy. CA We believe that the process of revision of the core ethics documents that culminated in approval by the HOD in June 2009 was indeed a learning and maturing experience for our professional association. S On the other hand, Webster and Baylis defined a moral community as “a community where there is coherence between what healthcare institutions publicly profess to be … and what employees, patients, and others both witness and participate in.”50(p228) It is possible that what the delegates were experiencing through debate and adoption of these revisions was a sense of moral community. The last major revision of the NASW Code of Ethics was in 1996. Key factors in the growth of the physiotherapists’ role in the United States, from subordinated practitioners to autonomous professionals, Disability Reconsidered: The Paradox of Physical Therapy, The Business of Ethics: Gender, Medicine, and the Professional Codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935. Pellegrino BOD drafts RC 4 and RC 5 for HOD. Physical therapists shall demonstrate professional judgment informed by professional standards, evidence (including current literature and established best practice), practitioner experience, and patient/client values. The role of the American Nurses Association Code in ethical decision making. IA. Code of Ethics for the Physical Therapist Policies & Bylaws HOD S06-20-28-25: All PTs are obligated to comply with the Code of Ethics for the Physical Therapist. . APTA BOD contracts project manager and external ethics consultant and appoints Task Force to Revise the Core Ethics Documents. . They found physical therapists ready. 2A. APTA Code of Ethics Cited in Statute The Arizona Administrative Code at R4-24-101(16) "Recognized standards of ethics" means the Code of Ethics (amended June 1991) and the accompanying Guide for Professional Conduct (amended January 1999) of the American Physical Therapy Association, 1111 North Fairfax Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1488, which is incorporated by reference and on file with … Beginning in 2005 and concluding in 2006, the EJC conducted a thorough and systematic review of these core ethics documents, as well as the ethical codes of other health care professions, to see how such codes compared with APTA's Code of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant in content and arrangement. JF 3D. The EJC is charged with proposing revisions of the ethical principles and standards of the Association, interpreting the ethical principles and standards, and making revisions, as necessary, to the documents that interpret the ethical principles and standards of the Association.31 The documents that interpret the ethical principles are the Guide for Professional Conduct33 and the Guide for Conduct of the Physical Therapist Assistant.34 Each group (BOD, HOD, and EJC) has authority over specific aspects of the ethics process, and none of the 3 entities enjoy absolute authority over the documents and process (Tab. Introduction In June 2009, the House of Delegates (HOD) of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) passed a major revision of the APTA Code of Ethics for physical therapists and the Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. The internal morality of clinical medicine: a paradigm for the ethics of the helping and healing professions. 3). 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