Adams, John S. (1963). Consequently, it may be better to study romantic relationships using an idiographic approach which focuses on the qualitative experiences of individuals, rather than employing a nomothetic approach to generate universal laws for human relationships. and costs (min.) In the 1980s, organizational scholars recognized that equity theory’s conceptualization of fairness in organizations was highly limiting because it focused only on the distribution of outcomes. Moreover, perception of equity changes over time. People measure the totals of their inputs and outcomes. +3: I am getting a much better deal than my partner. This theory postulates that a major share of individual behaviour is based on the perceived situation rather than on … Equity Sensi- tives are most content when their outcome/input Created by. PLAY. In L. Berkowitz & E. Hatfield (Eds. It explores the perceptions of humans regarding their inputs in the relationship and the outcomes they get. What seemed unfair in the beginning may become a norm as relationships progress, or the partner who gives more may start working even harder on the relationship until the balance is restored. In its basic form, the equity theory of motivation implies that each individual is motivated by the concept of “fairness.” If there are unequal levels of input or output, either internally or within an observed group, then adjustments are made to create more fairness … 9, pp. All students preparing for mock exams, other assessments and the summer exams for AQA A-Level Psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Equity is measured by comparing the ratio of contributions and benefits for each person. Fairness is achieved when people feel they get approximately what they deserve from relationships. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New York titles ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’. Employees are able to adjust for purchasing po… Equity theory proposes that individuals in social exchange relationships compare each other the ratios of their inputs into the exchange to their outcomes from the exchange. It is a cognitive-centered theory as it is basically concerned with the person himself, his […] AQA Psychology A Level - Equity theory. (Ed.) However, this may then result in an alpha bias and exaggerate differences between males and females that do not actually exist. The dictionary meaning of the word equity is the quality of being fair and impartial. For example, Stafford and Canary (2006) have discovered that partners who perceived their relationships as fair and balanced experienced most satisfaction, thus supporting Equity Theory’s suggestion that perceived fairness is necessary for happy relationships. Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. However, there is research that contradicts Equity Theory. Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the scales with expensive holidays. John Stacey Adams, a behavioral psychologist, conceived the theory in 1963. Spell. Learn. In their study over 200 married couples completed questionnaires on relationship equity and satisfaction. Different employees ascribe personal values to inputs and outcomes. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. If one partner perceives a relationship as unfair, they are going to be dissatisfied with it regardless of whether they are over-benefitting or under-benefitting. He is currently completing a Professional Doctorate in Education and is passionate about the impact of technology on teaching and learning. Start studying PSYCHOLOGY L9 - Equity Theory. Equity Often discussed in relationships, this is a situation in which people receive in proportion to what they give to the relationship. there is equity/fairness. For example, it is perfectly normal for many people to put in more than they receive at the beginning of a relationship, but if it carries on like that for too long, it will lead to dissatisfaction. Equity theory has some implications for managers: 1. Equity Theory is also called Inequity Theory as it is the unequal difference that is often the area of interest. (1965) Inequity in Social Exchange. Equity does not have to be identical or exact. A proper balance between input and output ensures that an employee feels satisfied and motivated, contributing to their productivity. These results indicate clear gender differences between males and females and highlight the importance of conducting research into males and females separately, to avoid gender bias. It was first developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs […] Other people, entitleds, believe they deserve to over-benefit from relationships and don’t feel too guilty about this. It’s about the balance between the effort an employee puts into their work (input), and the result they get in return (output). Fax: +44 01937 842110, We’re proud to sponsor TABS Cricket Club, Harrogate Town AFC and the Wetherby Junior Cricket League as part of our commitment to invest in the local community, Company Reg no: 04489574 | VAT reg no 816865400, © Copyright 2018 |Privacy & cookies|Terms of use, Influence of Early Attachment on Childhood and Adult Relationships, Example Answers for Relationships: A Level Psychology, Paper 3, June 2019 (AQA), Evolutionary Explanation - "Running Man" activity, Example Answers for Section B Relationships Topic Paper 3 June 2018 (AQA), Relationships: Duck's Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown, Relationships: Self-disclosure as a Factor Affecting Attraction in Romantic Relationships, Relationships: Evaluation of The Evolutionary Explanations of Relationships, Relationships: Sexual Selection and Human Reproductive Behaviour. Hatfield, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). -3: My partner is getting a much better deal than I am. Does Travelling Make You More Likely to Cheat? Equity Theory is based on the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness. In addition, participants were asked questions about the ways they maintained their relationships, such as by dividing chores, communicating positively and showing affection for one another. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. In simple terms, equity theory states that if an individual identifies an inequity between themselves and a peer, they will adjust the work they do to make the situation fair in their eyes. Equity is a sense of fairness in the exchange of goods, services, time, and effort. There are also important cultural differences not accounted for by the Equity theory. This paper describes a new construct, equity sensitivity, and proposes that reactions to equity/inequity are a function of an individual's preferences for different outcome/input ratios. An Equity Approach Instead of equality-driven solutions, what seems like a more promising approach is equity. Top Ten Psychology Movies to Get You to The End of Term! Inst… Equity Theory and its Applications in the Various Spheres of Life. Considered one of the justice theories, equity theory was first developed in the 1960s by J. Stacy Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the p fbruce_ Key Concepts: Terms in this set (14) What is equity theory? It is an economic theory that explains the importance of the balance of rewards (max.) Equity theory proposes the winning formula of fairness in relationships: one partner’s benefits minus their costs, should equal another partner’s benefits minus their costs. Equity theory focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. Like any theory of human psychology, the equity theory makes a number of assumptions about how people think and behave. During a social exchange, an individual assesses the ratio of what is output from the relationship to what is input in the relationship, and also the ratio of what the other person in the relationship outputs from the relationship to what is input into the relationship. Bad News Guys – Your Tattoo Doesn’t Impress the Ladies. A strength of Equity Theory is that it is supported by research findings. Flashcards. Thus, two employees of equal experience and qualification performing the same work for the same pay may have quite different perceptions of the fairness of the deal. This means a working mother may accept lower monetary compensation in return for more flexible working hours. However, Van Yperen and Buunk (1990) studied married couples and found that dissatisfaction in inequitable relationships increased with time, not the other way around. These findings oppose the central claim of the theory, and contradict the idea that equity increases over time, after the initiation of a romantic relationship. Briefly, they subscribe to the norm of equity and feel distress when either overrewarded or underrewarded. Unlike Social Exchange Theory that argues how people try to maximise rewards and minimise costs in relationships, Equity Theory suggests that partners are concerned about fairness in relationships. Boston House, Studies such as Aumer-Ryan et al. Match. Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. 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