Russia shared in the general European trend toward the development of postal services in the 13th century. The Internethas made the process of sending letter-like messages nearly instantaneous, and in many cases and situations correspondents use electronic mail where previously they would have used letters, although the volume of paper mail contin… Postal relations between states were the subject of bilateral postal treaties that had multiplied alarmingly during the 19th century. He also suggested the use of prepayment through adhesive stamps and will be sold at post offices. On July 26, 1775, the U.S. postal system is established by the Second Continental Congress, with Benjamin Franklin as its first postmaster general. In 1925, vast hoarding of cuneiform tablets was discovered in Kultepe Turkey. In both countries, these state systems naturally began to develop into monopolies since such an evolution was seen by rulers as advantageous both to the security and to the revenues of the state. As an American employer, the U.S. Regular flights did not begin in the United States until 1918, and it was not until 1919, when the reliability of airplanes had considerably improved, that the first regular international service was introduced—between London and Paris. On October 9 a “Treaty concerning the Establishment of a General Postal Union” was signed. During that time reliable communication from Rome to governors and military officials in some remote provinces was a necessity. In the mid-1970s, the concept of “surface air-lifted” (SAL) mails was developed in conjunction with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Which one did Nehemiah serve? The mercantile corporations of Italy provided the most extensive and regular postal system of this period. He also realized that another major item in the current cost structure—the collection of money payments on delivery—was easily avoidable. Russia also shared the postal communications at that time. Airships overcame this problem but, again, did not establish themselves as a regular means of mail transport. Their system developed throughout the 16th century until it covered most of Europe, using 20,000 couriers to operate a relay system that was speedy, efficient, and highly profitable. There was also a postal link between the Muslim capital, Venice and Constantinople. The far-reaching system contained relays of messengers who changed their horses every 9 miles (14.5 kilometers) apart. Carrying private mail was not legalized in France until 1627 and in Britain until 1635. The fall of the Roman Empire in the west during the 5th century did not completely destroy the cursus publicus. Mounted post boys rode the main routes. It consists of a sheet of lightweight paper suitably folded and gummed on all sides. Which one established the world's first postal service? Postal services long existed in China since 4000 BC. The extent and importance of Venetian business correspondence may be gauged from the fact that in 1320 the king of Persia accorded its couriers the right of free passage throughout his domains. Setting Up the Index A sophisticated, three-part postal code system (described as an “Index”) was first introduced in December of 1932. Corporations and guilds set up their own messengers. THE FIRST POSTAL SYSTEM On the basis of information reported by the Greek historian Herodotus, the first regular postal service in the world was established in ancient Iran in 6th century BC during the reign of the first king of the Achaemenids, Cyrus the Great (550 BC-529 BC). In 1672 France declared postal services to be a state monopoly under which operating rights were sold. Way back November 1639, the first postal service was established in America. 8. Other stamps are made of synthetic chemicals, silver foil, and paper. Warren Hastings had taken initiative under East India Company to start the Postal Service in India in 1688. London was the first city to benefit from an urban service when one William Dockwra set up his Penny Post in 1680. The system was favourably described by the Greek historians Herodotus and Xenophon. On the other side of the world, in China, a posthouse service had been started early in the Chou Dynasty (ruled 1122-221 BC). The first US postal service was organized in different countries at different years like Virginia (1657), New York (1672), Connecticut (1674), Philadelphia (1683), and New Hampshire (1683). While the growing availability of air flight did not affect basic postal organization as profoundly as the railways, its advantages of speed and operational reliability have been exploited in different ways since the 1920s. The first American transcontinental airmail flight took place in 1920, but regular service did not begin until 1924. The service survived in the era of adhesive stamps and was issued in various states of Germany until 1867. Unfortunately, serious obstacles to the free exchange of international mails existed. The chief features of Hill’s system were gradually adopted in varying degrees by other countries throughout the world, first among which were Switzerland and Brazil in 1843. National postal services had emerged from Europe and the need to postal services was passing. In Britain, a separate public service was set up in 1635 by a royal proclamation “for the settling of the letter-office of England and Scotland.” Thomas Witherings, a London merchant, was given the task of organizing regular services to run by day and night along the great post roads. Some of them find a way to stay in the line of postal services. The most striking improvements came as the result of an extensive program of road building that began about 1765, paving the way for the era of the stagecoach. Moreover, United States made a plastic stamp. He was assigned in handling all the ma… Europe used the medium parchment but it ended in the 15th century when China introduced paper via Asia Minor and Byzantine Empire. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Eventually, an international postal congress met, on September 15, 1874, in Bern. The Postal Service cannot be allowed to crumble in the midst of a national emergency. Von Taxis secured the right to carry both government and private mail throughout the empire. In the late 15th century, however, the trend toward improved postal services was reinforced by Gutenberg’s printing press (c. 1450) and the expansion of education. Institutional postal systems that developed during the later Middle Ages also conveyed letters between private persons, with or without official sanction and for a substantial fee in either case. In North America, the mail system began in the late 1600s when mail was carried by friends, merchants, and Native Americans. Postal services in the middle age were exclusively used for trade guilds (such as the Metzger Post of Germany served the guild of butchers), merchants of the Hanseatic League, Venice and the Italian city states, universities, and religious houses. Dockwra’s scheme was so successful that he was prosecuted for infringing the state monopoly, and his service was closed down in November 1682, only to be reopened by the government. Vehicles. Since the kings of the period were constantly struggling to assert their authority over their unruly feudal vassals, the strong central authority that sustained most postal systems was lacking. The great Persian Empire of Cyrus in the 6th century bc also employed relays of mounted messengers, served by posthouses. The first true postal codes date to the first half of the 20th century, and the first country to introduce them was Ukraine. The consistently high costs of airmail curtailed this trend after the war. Neither of these systems was intended to serve the public. Advertising The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government and has been responsible for providing postal services in the U.S. since its start in 1775. Thus, the state monopolies expanded their scope, happily combining an improved service to the public with greater profitability. Duncan Campbell of Boston organized the first domestic service in 1693. 20,000 messengers were employed to deliver mail and newspapers. The Postal Service's long-standing financial issues have been worsened by the pandemic. The family business lasted for over 420 years and the last hereditary Grand Master of the Posts died in 1871. In the beginning of 1765 new roads were built. Owing to the bewildering variety of currencies and units of weight and measurement then in use, the accounts attained a complexity described by a contemporary postmaster general of the United States as “almost beyond belief.” Understandably, the users of the post suffered from this chaotic situation and from the high international postage rates that were its natural result. The significance of his reforms lies not only in the fact that they brought the post within the means of the mass of the people but also in the less obvious way in which they gave the postal system the technical capacity to deal with the vastly increased demand for postal service that ensued. But in 1672, France declared all postal services to be a state of monopoly. Steamships were used and made the transport of mails faster. The basis of a real public service was not created until 1627, when fees and timetables were fixed and post offices established in the larger cities. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. It was also in 1792 that the first regular exchange of mails between United States of America and neighboring Canada happened. Rapidly advancing computer and data transmission technologies of the late 20th century are being felt far more widely within the postal sector than were previous advances, such as improved roads, the railway, and the airplane. Neither of these systems was comprehensive, nor were they intended to serve the public. London and Bath was the first route. Based on an exhaustive study of the cost structure of postal operations, it demonstrated conclusively that conveyance charges were an insignificant factor in the total cost of handling a letter. Want to save time and ship from home? The UPU has been a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1948. For individual correspondence, the most practical and inexpensive form of airmail remains the compact aerogram, which was introduced in Britain during World War II as a convenient way of writing to overseas military personnel. The scope of the union’s activities also expanded. The Postal Service has the nation’s largest retail network — bigger than McDonald’s, Starbucks and Walmart combined, domestically. Postal Service employees endorse them “Mail Service Suspended — Return to Sender” and then place them in the mail stream for return. ... the United States also came in first. Of particular importance were the links maintained from the mid-13th century between the great Italian commercial centres, such as Florence, Genoa, and Siena, and six important annual fairs held in the Champagne area of northern France. Despite the disruptive effects of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, great progress was made throughout Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in improving the speed and regularity of postal service and in providing internal delivery services for most of the larger cities. The conference established important general principles for the simplification of procedures, which were adopted as a model for subsequent bilateral treaties by the countries concerned. At that time, Chinese had highly sophisticated post relays. It was extended to Singapore by 1933 and to Australia in 1934. The first practical step toward reform did not come until May 1863, when the delegates of 15 European and American postal administrations met at the Paris Postal Conference, convening at the suggestion of the U.S. postmaster general. An inexpensive form of correspondence, the postcard, first introduced by Austria in 1869, was soon adopted by most other countries. The Thurn and Taxis monopoly operated a network of postal routes in Spain, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, and the Low Countries from 1512 to 1867. The postage rates were increased to finance the war. Paper stamps have been produced in a variety of techniques such as lithography, line engraving, photogravure, intaglio and web offset printing. The far-reaching system consisted of relays of couriers who changed horses at relay posts 9 miles (14.5 kilometers) apart. The final step required the embodiment of these principles in a formal international treaty and the creation of an organization to administer them. The Postal Service said in a statement over the weekend that it had referred Hopkins’s allegations to the U.S. It was nearly a 100 years before Paris started a similar city service and it was rapidly taken over by the government. The official at the center of the controversy over the Postal Service is a major Trump donor with a career in logistics. These new modes of conveyance permitted a far speedier, more regular, and more reliable mail service, both internally and internationally. His pamphlet, "Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability," is now regarded as a milestone in the development of the modern postal system. The treaty provides a uniform framework of rules and procedures for the exchange of international mails. Between 1775 and 1815, Britain was at constant war with United States and France. Egyptians preferred to use papyrus. Romans wrote their letters on wax tablets and on thin sheets of woods. Bhutan issued one with its national anthem on a playable record. It was probably in China that a posthouse relay system was first developed and was brought to a high state of development under the Mongol emperors. Stamps are made in a three-dimensional image or design of foil, sometimes gold.Switzerland made a stamp partly of lace and wood. These were first used by the post office in 1784 and rapidly superseded the mounted postboys on the main routes. Mails in the Roman Empire were carried by public course using light carts that drive through concrete roads. —Benjamin B. Lipsner, Superintendent of Aerial Mail Service, 19181 When airmail began in 1918, airplanes were still a fairly new invention. These ancient services are well documented in existing records of events. Postal Service, like other delivery companies, has experienced some temporary service … Deliveries were made almost hourly. The latter part of middle age private postal system was created and carried personal mail as well as commercial correspondence. Post master originally meant horse-hirer. With the stagecoaches making possible a general reorganization of the entire system of mail circulation, letters could be delivered the morning after posting in towns more than 120 miles from London. Although the modes of transport made it easier but the national postal service underwent revolutionary change. They, along with other powerful institutions—the municipalities, the religious orders, and the universities (notably in Paris)—started to maintain corps of messengers to serve their particular needs. In 1691, the British postal service in London was organized under Thomas Neale, the Deputy Postmaster General. On the same century, the best-known and most efficient postal service operated by the Counts of Thurn and Taxis. It was attended by representatives of 22 states, all European except for Egypt and the United States. Ancient Egyptians developed a postal service that dates back to 2000 B.C. Some, like the Paar family in Austria, developed postal organizations on a national scale. On the same year the family was forced to give up its postal monopoly to Prussia. The first reflection of this trend in the postal sphere was the establishment of efficient national systems of relay posts under the control of the state. In 1830 mail by rail began to replace horses and coaches. The service was carefully regulated. Founding father Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The speed with which messengers were able to travel during the peak of the administration was not to be rivaled in Europe until the 19th century: it has been claimed that more than 170 miles (270 kilometres) could be covered in a day and a night. The substitution of one centralized imperial regime for another meant that the cursus publicus could be incorporated into a similar Arabian postal system based in Baghdad. He proposed that payments will be based on weight and suggested a penny for each half-ounce. He made a solution to postal problems by imposing a uniform postage rate regardless the distance. There was still opportunity for private enterprise to succeed by introducing services that were not at that time provided by the state systems. The first US postal service was organized in different countries at different years like Virginia (1657), New York (1672), Connecticut (1674), Philadelphia (1683), and New Hampshire (1683). Under the patronage of the Habsburg emperors, they became the organizers of an extensive network of postal routes linking the imperial possessions. Since the Champagne fairs were attended by merchants from all over Europe, the postal system provided a valuable international link. ; the oldest postal system in the world. On the long-distance continental and intercontinental routes airmail demonstrated its clear superiority over all surface transport. In the Inca Empire, posthouses were maintained at frequent intervals along the remarkable road network, and a like system probably served the Mayan civilization for more than 1,000 years. 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