Fomalhaut b appears as an unresolved point source in the highest-quality data (at 0.6 μm) which would suggest that its projected emitting area cannot be larger than about 0.25 AU, about 1/4th of the Earth–Sun distance. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. Moreover, grains smaller than ~7 µm are ejected from the Fomalhaut system by radiation pressure17,18. The star Fomalhaut, which is known to be surrounded by several debris disks, holds a special place in … Fomalhaut b has subsequently been described as a low-mass planet whose surrounding dust cloud is entirely responsible for its detection or, most recently, debris from a collision of asteroids instead. In 2008, astronomers had reported the discovery of Fomalhaut b, which they said was "the first visible-light snapshot of a planet circling another star," according to a NASA statement. α Piscis Austrini (Latinised to Alpha Piscis Austrini) is the system's Bayer designation. Analyses of additional STIS data obtained in 2013 and 2014 argue that Fomalhaut b is fading and expanding in size, a behavior that may support the interpretation of Fomalhaut b as a collision between two asteroid-sized objects.. The fluffy morphology of the grains suggests a cometary origin. Its infrared brightness indicates that every day about 2,000 comets about 1 km (0.6 mile) in size are colliding with each other. , Kalas remarked, "It's a profound and overwhelming experience to lay eyes on a planet never before seen. have a median size of ~30 µm15, which is consistent with the ~100 µm grain sizes inferred for Fomalhaut based on model fits to thermal infrared 1data 1,16. Fomalhaut b then began dimming, and by 2014 the telescope could no longer detect it. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to … study. Although visible in optical light, researchers couldn't find the infrared signature a planet that size should create.  In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. They modeled the optical detections and infrared upper limits for Fomalhaut b, showing that Fomalhaut b's emission can be completely explained by starlight scattered by small dust and arguing that this dust surrounds an unseen planetary-mass object. In 2008, astronomers had reported the discovery of Fomalhaut b, which they said was "the first visible-light snapshot of a planet circling another star," according to a NASA statement. It is located approximately 25 light-years away in the Piscis Austrinus constellation.  LP 876-10 was originally catalogued as a high-proper-motion star by Willem Luyten in his 1979 NLTT catalogue; however, a precise trigonometric parallax and radial velocity was only measured quite recently. , The New Scientist magazine termed it the "Great Eye of Sauron", due to its shape and debris ring, when viewed from a distance, bearing similarity to the aforementioned "Eye" in the Peter Jackson Lord of the Rings films.. Cloud State University Planetarium of St. Although it is only twice the size of the sun, Fomalhaut is 16 times brighter. Fomalhaut because of its large size will likely only last a billion years at which time it will exhaust its fuel and slough off its outer layers leaving only a white dwarf core. Fomalhaut because of its large size will likely only last a billion years at which time it will exhaust its fuel and slough off its outer layers leaving only a white dwarf core. , On October 24, 2012, a team led by Thayne Currie at the University of Toronto announced the first independent recovery of Fomalhaut b and revived the claim that Fomalhaut b identifies a planet. Gáspár and Rieke estimate that each of these comet-like bodies measured about 125 miles (200 kilometers) across (roughly half the size of the asteroid Vesta). , LP 876-10 is also associated with the Fomalhaut system, making it a trinary star. discovery in Science. 2012, the Spitzer IR non-detection of Fomalhaut b, Astrobites summary of Boley et al. In 2019 a team of researchers analyzing the astrometry, radial velocity measurements, and images of Fomalhaut B suggested the existence of a planet orbiting the star with a mass of 1.2+0.7−0.6 Jupiter Masses, and an poorly defined orbital period of up to 80 years. A fluid world has an oceanic geography of a liquid other than water such as ammonia, methane, hydrocarbons, or other exotic liquids. Click the Images Below to go to the Corresponding Page. Fomalhaut /ˈfoʊməl.hɔːt/, designation Alpha Piscis Austrini (α Piscis Austrini, abbreviated Alpha PsA, α PsA) is the brightest star in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus, the "Southern Fish", and one of the brightest stars in the sky. , At a declination of −29.6°, Fomalhaut is located south of the celestial equator, and hence is best viewed from the Southern Hemisphere.  In 2012, two independent studies confirmed that Fomalhaut b does exist, but it is shrouded by debris, so it may be a gravitationally-bound accumulation of rubble rather than a whole planet. Where Fomalhaut b has moved in 2 years.  The name Dagon was proposed by Dr. Todd Vaccaro and forwarded by the St. Multiple-star systems hosting multiple debris disks are exceedingly rare. Cloud, Minnesota, United States of America, to the IAU for consideration. The nature of Fomalhaut b became unclear after its discovery. Measurements of Fomalhaut's rotation indicate that the disk is located in the star's equatorial plane, as expected from theories of star and planet formation. The dust particles are estimated to be about 1 micrometre (1/50th the diameter of a human hair) in size.  More recent work has found that purported members of the Castor Moving Group appear to not only have a wide range of ages, but their velocities are too different to have been possibly associated with one another in the distant past.  The mass of the planet, Fomalhaut b, was estimated to be less than three times the mass of Jupiter, and at least the mass of Neptune.  The surface temperature of the star is around 8,590 K (8,320 °C). reported the discovery of a cold dusty debris disk associated with Fomalhaut C, using infrared images from the Herschel Space Observatory. Fomalhaut b has carved a path along the inner edge of a vast, dusty debris ring encircling Fomalhaut that is 21.5 billion miles across. A visi-bly slightly elongated peak, possibly the core of a background galaxy, had a ﬁtted standard deviation of only 000.042 ± 000.008, more than two times smaller than that of Fomalhaut b. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN, which included the name Fomalhaut for this star. Although this scenario is possible, the likelihood of observing such a collision at the location of Fomalhaut b is extremely low. As a result, Fomalhaut b's true identity has remained enigmatic. Gáspár and Rieke estimate that each of these comet-like bodies measured about 200 kilometers across.  Under the rules for naming objects in multiple star systems, the three components – Fomalhaut, TW Piscis Austrini and LP 876-10 – are designated A, B and C, respectively. Their non-detections with ground-based infrared data suggested that Fomalhaut b had to be less massive than about 3 Jupiter masses. Fomalhaut b was identified to be an exoplanet in 2008 after reviewing images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2004 and 2006.As such, it was among the first to be discovered using the direct imaging method. Fomalhaut’s planet, Fomalhaut b or Dagon. Fomalhaut is a star in the Southern Hemisphere in the constellation Piscis Austrinus. Fomalhaut b This star system contains the first visible extrasolar planet known as Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b rotates around Fomalhaut every 872 years. Fomalhaut b, formally named Dagon (/ˈdeɪɡən/), is a confirmed, directly imaged extrasolar object and candidate planet orbiting the A-type main-sequence star Fomalhaut, approximately 25 light-years away in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus. A circumplanetary ring system is large enough to scatter enough starlight to make Fomalhaut b visible only if it has a radius between 20 and 40 times that of Jupiter's radius. Based on these observations, astronomers calculated that the planet is in a 2,000-year-long, highly elliptical orbit. Fomalhaut b and three companions around HR 8799, whose discovery was announced simultaneously, were described as the first directly imaged extrasolar planets (among earlier claims such as e.g. The resulting interpretation is that Fomalhaut b is not a planet, but a slowly expanding cloud blasted into space as a result of a collision between two lcomet-like bodies.  They reanalyzed the original Hubble data using new, more powerful algorithms for separating planet light from starlight and confirmed that Fomalhaut b does exist. Optimized size - 2880x1620 - for Fomalhaut b, orbiting its sun wallpaper to be saved in desktop backgrounds or phones. In October 2013, Eric Mamajek and collaborators from the RECONS consortium announced that the previously known high-proper-motion star LP 876-10 had a distance, velocity, and color-magnitude position consistent with being another member of the Fomalhaut system. LP 876-10 is a red dwarf of spectral type M4V, and located even further from Fomalhaut A than TW PsA—about 5.7° away from Fomalhaut A in the sky, in the neighbouring constellation Aquarius, whereas both Fomalhaut A and TW PsA are located in constellation Piscis Austrinus. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has taken the first visible-light snapshot of a planet circling another star. In July 2014, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) launched a process for giving proper names to certain exoplanets. In the 1600s Johann Bayer firmly planted it in the primary position of Piscis Austrinus. Analysis of existing and new data suggests Fomalhaut b is not a planet, rather an expanding dust disk resulting from a former collision. It is 1.9 times more massive and 1.8 times bigger compared with our Sun. We consider the ability of three models – impacts, captures, and collisional cascades – to account for a bright cloud of dust in Fomalhaut b. The object was initially announced in 2008 and confirmed as real in 2012 from images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope and, according to calculations reported in January 2013, has a 1,700-year, highly elliptical orbit. The host star Fomalhaut has apparent magnitude of 1.2, with absolute magnitude of 1.7.  Finally, in 2008, a spectroscopic measurement gave a significantly lower value of 46%. Several ground-based observations have searched for this hypothetical Fomalhaut "c" but have yet to find it. Infrared non-detections suggest that Fomalhaut b cannot be more massive than 2 times Jupiter's mass but a lower limit on the mass depends on uncertain details for the nature of Fomalhaut b, its circumplanetary environment, and the existence of other planetary-mass bodies in the system. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has taken the first visible-light snapshot of a planet circling another star.  The process involved public nomination and voting for the new names. However, longer-term monitoring of Fomalhaut b may show evidence that the object is fading with time. Fomalhaut b then began dimming, and by 2014 the telescope could no longer detect it. It has a periastron of 7.4 billion km (~50 AU) and an apastron of about 44 billion km (~300 AU).  It is classified as a Vega-like star that emits excess infrared radiation, indicating it is surrounded by a circumstellar disk. Fomalhaut b could be a conglomeration of rubble from a recent collision between comet-to-asteroid-sized bodies and not actually identify a planet. The orbital separation of Fomalhaut b is larger than that for directly imaged planets around β Pictoris and HR 8799(8–70 AU).  These results invoked skepticism about Fomalhaut b's status as an extrasolar planet. [nb 1] A second 1997 study deduced a value of 78%, by assuming Fomalhaut has the same metallicity as the neighboring star TW Piscis Austrini, which has since been argued to be a physical companion. The current designation reflects modern consensus on Bayer's decision, that the star belongs in Piscis Austrinus. Following Ptolemy, John Flamsteed in 1725 additionally denoted it 79 Aquarii. The nature of Fomalhaut b became unclear after its discovery. , A second paper made public a day later and led by Raphael Galicher and Christian Marois at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics also independently recovered Fomalhaut b and confirmed the new 0.4 µm detection, claiming the spectral energy distribution (SED) of Fomalhaut b cannot be explained as due to direct or scattered radiation from a massive planet. it is not orbiting in the same plane as the disk), its orbit is not completely nested within the debris disk. Fomalhaut b could be a conglomeration of rubble from a recent collision between comet-to-asteroid-sized bodies and not actually identify a planet. , Fomalhaut is a young star, for many years thought to be only 100 to 300 million years old, with a potential lifespan of a billion years. Fomalhaut's dusty disk is believed to be protoplanetary, and emits considerable infrared radiation. LP 876-10 is located well within the tidal radius of the Fomalhaut system, which is 1.9 parsecs (6.2 light-years). USS Fomalhaut (AK-22) was a United States navy amphibious cargo ship. size of dwarf planets, such as Pluto. It marked the solstice in 2500 BC. “Our Hubble observations were incredibly demanding. , Fomalhaut b is orbiting its host star at a wide separation, where forming massive planets is difficult.  Dagon was a Semitic deity, often represented as half-man, half-fish. A 1997 spectroscopic study measured a value equal to 93% of the Sun's abundance of iron. 2M1207 b, GQ Lup b, DH Tau b, AB Pic b, CHXR 73 b, UScoCTIO 108 b, CT Cha b, 1RXS 1609 b) in that their emission was thought to originate at least in part from a planetary atmosphere. a dust ring) and thermal emission from a jovian planet atmosphere.  On its discovery, the planet was designated Fomalhaut b. Assuming that Fomalhaut b's orbit is in the same plane as the debris disk located exterior to it, it orbits Fomalhaut at a distance of approximately 115 AU (1.72×1010 km; 1.07×1010 mi).  However, analysis of Fomalhaut b's astrometry showed that the object has a high eccentricity (e = 0.8), its orbit (projected on the sky) crosses the plane of Fomalhaut's debris ring, and thus it is unlikely to be the object sculpting the debris ring's sharp inner edge. , Fomalhaut has been claimed to be one of approximately 16 stars belonging to the Castor Moving Group. , In May 2008, Paul Kalas, James Graham and their collaborators identified Fomalhaut b from Hubble/ACS images taken in 2004 and 2006 at visible wavelengths (i.e. This is the first time such a catastrophic event around another star has been imaged. Fomalhaut b’s closest approach to the star (periastron) is approximately 30 au and the orbital period is roughly 1,700 years. Fomalhaut b is unlikely to be only a dust cloud (i.e., only ≤1 mm sized grains) because the size of the object required to account for the grain scattering surface area is at least 10 km in size (Kalas et al. Alternatively, it could be a conglomeration of rubble from a recent collision between comet-to-asteroid-sized bodies, and not actually a planet.. Fomalhaut b’s discoverer, Paul Kalas of the University of California, Berkeley, thinks it might be an exo-Saturn – a ringed planet about a third the size of Jupiter. The true nature of Fomalhaut b is the subject of significant debate. Thus, we consider 1.16 AU < s < 2.32 AU. Fomalhaut b’s orbit was also odd and very eccentric. , Fomalhaut forms a binary star with the K4-type star TW Piscis Austrini (TW PsA), which lies 0.28 parsecs (0.91 light-years) away from Fomalhaut, and its space velocity agrees with that of Fomalhaut within 0.1±0.5 km/s, consistent with being a bound companion. Our sun will share a similar fate but not for at least another 5 billion years.  Although the initial discovery paper for Fomalhaut b suggested that its optical brightness may be variable due to planetary accretion, later reanalyses of these data fail to find convincing evidence that Fomalhaut b is indeed variable, thus eliminating evidence for planetary accretion. It is located approximately 25 light-years away in the Piscis Austrinus constellation. Gáspár and Rieke estimate that each of these comet-like bodies measured about 200 kilometers across. The innermost disk is unexplained as yet. If the planet's orbit lies in the same plane with the belt, icy and rocky debris in the belt could crash into the planet's atmosphere and produce various phenomena. Its discovery was publicly announced on 2008. Fomalhaut b appears to be moving at about 4 kilometers per second. Moreover, the sub-millimeter observations (far right image) revealed that the ring was inclined 20 degrees from an edge-on view. Based on a new analysis of Hubble observations from 2004 and 2006, the team identified the planet in three different wavelengths of visible light. This false-color composite image, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, reveals the orbital motion of the planet Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b’s discoverer, Paul Kalas of the University of California, Berkeley, thinks it might be an exo-Saturn – a ringed planet about a third the size of Jupiter. In other words, Fomalhaut b may not physically pass through the belt.  The dust is distributed in a belt about 25 AU wide. Fomalhaut is a star in the Southern Hemisphere in the constellation Piscis Austrinus. Illustration from the Hubble Space Telescope’s observations of Fomalhaut b’s expanding dust cloud from 2004 to 2013. The new images obtained with the multiband imaging photometer onboard Spitzer confirm this general picture, while revealing important new details of Fomalhaut's circumstellar dust. Fomalhaut was the first stellar system with an extrasolar planet candidate (designated Fomalhaut b, later named Dagon) imaged at visible wavelengths. Size of this preview: 738 × 599 pixels. Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, List of star systems within 25–30 light-years, "VLTI near-IR interferometric observations of Vega-like stars. , Fomalhaut is slightly metal-deficient compared to the Sun, which means it is composed of a smaller percentage of elements other than hydrogen and helium. , Herschel Space Observatory images of Fomalhaut reveal that a large amount of fluffy micrometer-sized dust is present in the outer dust belt.  At slightly wider scales comparable to the locations of planets around HR 8799, any additional planets must have masses below about 2 to 7 Jupiter masses. An informational video about Fomalhaut. However, Fomalhaut b should be detectable in space-based infrared data if its mass is between 1-3 Jupiter masses. Because Fomalhaut b is presently inside a vast ring of icy debris encircling the star, colliding bodies would likely be a mixture of ice and dust, like the comets that exist in the Kuiper belt on the outer fringe of our solar system. The planet, which they named 'Fomalhaut b', was estimated to have a maximum size of about three times the size of Jupiter, and it was orbiting a a distance of about 10 times the distance that Saturn orbits our Sun. , The nature of Fomalhaut b is unclear. At 40°N, Fomalhaut rises above the horizon for eight hours and reaches only 20° above the horizon, while Capella, which rises at approximately the same time, will stay above the horizon for twenty hours. If the particles of dust are spheres with radius a and if the cross section of the particles equals their geometric albedo, the mass M d of a cloud of dust that lies at a distance D from its star is (Jura et al. Finally, we estimate when the collision may have occurred to reproduce the size of the Fomalhaut b images. the Fomalhaut b source in the STIS images, we investigated the size of point-like background features in the raw data. The designation TW Piscis Austrini is astronomical nomenclature for a variable star. While smaller than the Sun, it is relatively large for a flare star. The existence of a massive planet orbiting Fomalhaut was first inferred from Hubble observations published in 2005 that resolved the structure of Fomalhaut's massive, cold debris disk (or dust belt/ring). Finally, researchers analyzing September–October 2011 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) data for Fomalhaut's debris ring suggested an alternate hypothesis: that the ring could be shaped by much smaller, shepherding planets, neither of which needed to be Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b's highly eccentric orbit may have been created by gravitational slinging or collision with another planet . Fomalhaut/Earthwork B, in Mounds State Park near Anderson, Indiana, lines up with the rising of the star Fomalhaut in the fall months, according to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. In the discovery paper, Kalas and collaborators suggested that Fomalhaut b's emission originates from two sources: from circumplanetary dust scattering starlight and from planet thermal emission. This was the first extrasolar orbiting object to be seen with visible light, captured by the Hubble Space Telescope. Some astronomers now say it was a cloud of asteroid debris", "New HST data and modeling reveal a massive planetesimal collision around Fomalhaut", NameExoWorlds: An IAU Worldwide Contest to Name Exoplanets and their Host Stars, Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Images captured of 4 planets outside solar system", "First pictures taken of planet outside the solar system: Fomalhaut b", "ALMA Reveals Workings of Nearby Planetary System", "New doubts about 'poster child' of exoplanets", "New Study Brings a Doubted Exoplanet 'Back from the Dead, "Fomalhaut b: the first directly observed exoplanet", Hubblecast 22: Hubble directly observes planet orbiting Fomalhaut, NASA's Hubble reveals rogue planetary orbit for Fomalhaut b, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fomalhaut_b&oldid=987321158, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 08:02. We began this program in 2001, and our persistence finally paid off," Kalas says. The planet completes an orbit around Fomalhaut every 872 years.  Fomalhaut is the third-brightest star (as viewed from Earth) known to have a planetary system, after the Sun and Pollux. Fomalhaut b is an exoplanet orbiting the star Fomalhaut, located about 25.1 light-years ( 7.7 pc) away from Solar System. Scientists solve the mystery of the disappearing exoplanet Fomalhaut b. Shane McGlaun - Apr 21, 2020, 6:57am CDT. Models for Fomalhaut b assuming it is surrounded by a swarm of planetesimals imply that it could be much lower mass (10–100 times the mass of Earth). , On November 13, 2008, astronomers announced an object, which they assumed to be an extrasolar planet, orbiting just inside the outer debris ring. But sensitive infrared Spitzer Space Telescope observations failed to detect Fomalhaut b, implying that Fomalhaut b has less than 1 Jupiter mass. Fomalhaut b has carved a path along the inner edge of a vast, dusty debris ring encircling Fomalhaut that is 34.5 billion kilometres across.  The orbital separation of Fomalhaut b is larger than that for directly imaged planets around β Pictoris and HR 8799 (8–70 AU).  In December 2015, the IAU announced the winning name was Dagon for this planet. The inset at bottom right is a composite image showing the planet’s position during Hubble observations taken in 2004 and 2006. The classical astronomer Ptolemy put it in Aquarius, as well as Piscis Austrinus. Because Fomalhaut b is presently inside a vast ring of icy debris encircling the star, colliding bodies would likely be a mixture of ice and dust, like the comets that exist in the Kuiper belt on the outer fringe of our solar system. not apsidally aligned) for this explanation to work. At very small, Solar-System-like scales any additional companions must have a mass less than thirteen times the mass of Jupiter. Fomalhaut b, assuming an unconstrained cloud model orbit, using MCMC analysis (6000 chains, 5000 steps, burn-in limit at 2000 steps). However, subsequent images taken from the Spitzer Space Telescope showed no such planet.  A planet's existence had been previously suspected from the sharp, elliptical inner edge of that disk. As a result, Fomalhaut b's true identity has remained enigmatic.  Alternatively, if it is a transient dust cloud it must be extremely young, perhaps having formed within the last few centuries.  Dagon was a Semitic deity, often represented as half-man, half-fish. The inner disk is a high-carbon small-grain (10–300 nm) ash disk, clustering at 0.1 AU from the star. Because Fomalhaut b is presently inside a vast ring of icy debris encircling the star, the colliding bodies were likely a mixture of ice and dust, like the cometary bodies that exist in the Kuiper belt on the outer fringe of our solar system. Fomalhaut b is three times the size of Jupiter and 10.7 billion miles away from Fomalhaut. Radius and age of α PsA, β Leo, β Pic, ɛ Eri and τ Cet", "High-resolution spectroscopy of Vega-like stars - I. The orbit was recalculated from the newest Hubble observation made last year.  Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. , Fomalhaut/Earthwork B, in Mounds State Park near Anderson, Indiana, lines up with the rising of the star Fomalhaut in the fall months, according to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. However, its southerly declination is not as great as that of stars such as Acrux, Alpha Centauri and Canopus, meaning that, unlike them, Fomalhaut is visible from a large part of the Northern Hemisphere as well. Optimized size - 2880x1620 - for Fomalhaut b, orbiting its sun wallpaper to be saved in desktop backgrounds or phones. The host star Fomalhaut has apparent magnitude of 1.2, with absolute magnitude of 1.7. Although visible in optical light, researchers couldn't find the infrared signature a planet that size should create. , The outermost disk is at a radial distance of 133 AU (1.99×1010 km; 1.24×1010 mi), in a toroidal shape with a very sharp inner edge, all inclined 24 degrees from edge-on. Although this scenario is possible, the likelihood of observing such a collision at the location of Fomalhaut b is extremely low. A recent age estimate for TW PsA (400±70 million years) agrees very well with the isochronal age for Fomalhaut (450±40 million years), further arguing for the two stars forming a physical binary.. " In the image, the bright outer oval band is the dust ring, while the features inside of this band represent noise from scattered starlight.. NASA released the composite discovery photograph on November 13, 2008, coinciding with the publication of Kalas et al.  A massive planet on a wide orbit but located interior to this debris ring could clear out parent bodies and dust in its vicinity, leaving the ring appearing to have a sharp inner edge and making it appear offset from the star. However, subsequent studies from the Spitzer Space Telescope and a reanalysis of the original HST data instead suggest that Fomalhaut b's light is scattered starlight, not planet thermal emission. The cloud was produced in a collision between two large bodies orbiting the bright nearby star Fomalhaut. Most flare stars are red M-type dwarfs. Fomalhaut b This star system contains the first visible extrasolar planet known as Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b rotates around Fomalhaut every 872 years. Continuing the line from Beta to Alpha Pegasi towards the southern horizon, Fomalhaut is about 45˚ south of Alpha Pegasi, with no bright stars in between. Fomalhaut b was first spotted by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2004 and confirmed as a massive exoplanet in 2008. "Fomalhaut is the gift that keeps on giving. Fomalhaut b lies 1.8 billion miles inside the ring’s inner edge and orbits 10.7 billion miles from its star. Fomalhaut b is 1 billion times fainter than the star. 1", NameExoWorlds: An IAU Worldwide Contest to Name Exoplanets and their Host Stars, Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released, http://www.sctimes.com/story/news/local/2015/12/25/scsu-planetarium-names-exoplanet/77875858/, "ALMA Reveals Workings of Nearby Planetary System", "Shallow Sky Object of the Month: Fomalhaut", "Elusive Planet Reshapes a Ring Around Neighboring Star", "Hubble Directly Observes a Planet Orbiting Another Star", "Hubble snaps first optical photo of exoplanet", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "The Possible Astrometric Signature of a Planetary-mass Companion to the Nearby Young Star TW Piscis Austrini (Fomalhaut B): Constraints from Astrometry, Radial Velocities, and Direct Imaging", AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 7 日, Astrobites summary of Janson et al.  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